LA Weather - Rifleman - Military Tactics (CD)

Retrieved December 13, Night Combat. United States Army. Retrieved London: F. Lancer Publishers. Retrieved 1 January A holding attack is the most common type of supporting attack. Typically, it is launched frontally against an enemy position while the main attack outflanks or envelops the enemy. Categories : Military tactics Military lists.

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Views Read Edit View history. They then advanced towards the English Channel, and surrounded the Anglo-French armies. Small secondary German attacks concentrated at a few points in the Line had mixed success. The bulk of the Maginot Line was untouched, its garrisons withdrawn, and flanked. Due to the lack of combat, much of it has survived.

The return of mobile warfare in World War II reduced the emphasis of trench warfare, as defenders commonly lacked the time to build up such battlefield defenses before they were forced to redeploy, due to the more rapidly-changing strategic situation.

More quickly improvised defensive fighting positionsusing "scrapes" or "foxholes", that can be supplemented by sand bagslocal materials, debris, or rubble, remain in common use. These are typically LA Weather - Rifleman - Military Tactics (CD) and expanded by the defenders, eventually becoming full trench systems, if given enough time and resources. At the Battle of SevastopolRed Army forces successfully held trench systems on the narrow peninsula for several months against intense German bombardment.

The Western Allies in broke through the incomplete Atlantic Wall with relative ease through a combination of amphibious landings, naval gunfire, air attack, and airborne landings. Combined arms tactics where infantry, artillery, armour and aircraft cooperate closely greatly reduced the importance of trench warfare.

It was, however, still a valuable method for reinforcing natural boundaries and creating a line of defence. For example, at the Battle of Stalingradsoldiers on both sides dug trenches within the ruins, as well in the Battle of Hurtgen Forestboth American and German soldiers also dug trenches in the rugged woods of the forest which lead to continuous stalemates and failed offensives that lasted for months, which was reminiscent of the trench warfare of World War I.

In addition, before the start of the Battle of Kurskthe Soviets constructed a system of defence more elaborate than any they built during World War I. These defences succeeded in stopping the German armoured pincers from meeting and enveloping the salient. The Italian Campaign fought from until the end of the war in Europe largely consisted of the Allies storming strongly fortified German lines which stretched from one coast, over the mountains to the other coast.

When the Allies broke through one line, the Germans would retreat up the peninsula to yet another freshly prepared fortified line. At the start of the Battle of Berlinthe last major assault on Germany, the Russians attacked over the river Oder against German troops dug in on the Seelow Heightsabout 50 km 31 mi east of Berlin.

Entrenchment allowed the Germans, who were massively outnumbered, to survive a bombardment from the largest concentration of artillery in history; as the Red Army attempted to cross the marshy riverside terrain they lost tens of thousands of casualties to the entrenched Germans before breaking through.

During the Pacific Warthe Japanese used a labyrinth of underground fixed positions to slow down the Allied advances on many Pacific Islands. The Japanese built fixed fortifications on Iwo JimaOkinawaand Peleliu using a system of tunnels to interconnect their fortified positions. Many of these were former mine shafts that were turned into defense positions.

Engineers added sliding armored steel doors with multiple openings to serve both artillery and machine guns. Cave entrances were built slanted as a defense against grenade and flamethrower attacks.

The caves and bunkers were connected to a vast system throughout the defenses, which allowed the Japanese to evacuate or reoccupy positions as needed, and to take advantage of shrinking interior lines. This network of bunkerstunnels, and pillboxes favored the defense.

For instance, the Japanese had on Battle of Iwo Jima several levels of honeycombed fortifications. The bunker was 90 feet deep and had tunnels running in various directions.

Approximately gallon drums filled with water, kerosene, and fuel oil for generators were located inside the complex. Gasoline powered generators allowed for radios and lighting to be operated underground.

The Americans eventually used flamethrowers and systematic hand-to-hand fighting to oust the defenders. Navy and Marine Corps aviators throughout the entire battle. Trench warfare has been infrequent in recent wars. When two large armoured armies meet, the result has generally been mobile warfare of the type which developed in World War II.

However, trench warfare re-emerged in the latter stages of the Chinese Civil War Huaihai Campaign [ citation needed ] and the Korean War from July to its end. During the Cold War, NATO forces routinely trained to fight through extensive works called "Soviet-style trench systems", named after the Warsaw Pact 's complex systems of field fortifications, an extension of Soviet field entrenching practices for which they were famous in their Great Patriotic War the Eastern Front of World War II.

However, both countries often prepared entrenched defensive positions and tunnels to protect and supply the cities and bases throughout the regions. Another problem and success from both sides was their military mobility had reduced, drastically, due to hidden various land minesand with no firm or stable ground footing it was easy to slide down or even get buried in a camouflaged anti-tank trench.

Tactics used included trench warfare, machine gun posts, bayonet charges, booby traps, use of barbed wire across trenches and on no-man's landIranian human wave attacksand Iraq's extensive use of chemical weapons such as mustard gas against Iranian troops.

Although mainly a siegeit was not unusual to find an extensive trench system inside and outside the city of Sarajevo during the siege of — It was used mainly for transportation to the front-line or to avoid snipers inside the city. Another example of trench stalemate was the Eritrean-Ethiopian War of — The widespread use of trenches has resulted in comparisons of the conflict to the trench warfare of World War I.

The element of surprise in the attack involved the use of donkeys as pack animals as well as being a solely infantry affair, with tanks coming in afterwards only to secure the area. The front line in Korea and the front lines between Pakistan and India in Kashmir are two examples of demarcation lines which could become hot at any time.

They consist of kilometres of trenches linking fortified strongpoints and in Korea surrounded by millions of land mines. The borders between ArmeniaRepublic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan amid the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict are also heavily fortified with trenches and barbed wire, with the two sides regularly trading fire.

A recent example of trench warfare is the War in Donbass. To consolidate and defend their territory, government and rebel forces have dug trenches and have initiated warfare reminiscent of World War I, with troops staying in and fighting from trenches for months at a time using cement mixers and excavators at their lines for digging network tunnels and deep bunkers for protection.

As a result, both sides have dug elaborate networks of trenches and deep bunkers for protection. Trench warfare has become a powerful symbol of the futility of war. Trench warfare is associated with mass slaughter in appalling conditions. Many critics have argued that brave men went to their deaths because of incompetent and narrow-minded commanders who failed to adapt to the new conditions of trench warfare: class-ridden and backward-looking generals put their faith in the attack, believing superior morale and dash would overcome the weapons and moral inferiority of the defender.

World War I generals are often portrayed as callously persisting in repeated hopeless attacks against trenches. There were failures such as Passchendaele, and Sir Douglas Haig has often been criticised for allowing his battles to continue long after they had lost any purpose other than attrition. The problems of trench warfare were recognised, and attempts were made to address them. These included improvements in artillery, infantry tactics, and the development of tanks.

Bytaking advantage of failing German morale, Allied attacks were generally more successful and suffered fewer casualties; in the Hundred Days Offensivethere was even a return to mobile warfare. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Land warfare involving static fortification of lines. This article is about the development, tactics and experience of trench warfare. Prehistoric Ancient Post-classical Early modern Late modern industrial fourth-gen.

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Plan of the Y Sap mine. Main article: Chemical weapons in World War I. Main article: Tanks in World War I. World War I portal. Cultural Dictionary. Retrieved 14 August Volume I.

Wellington: R. Owen, Government Printer. New Zealand Department of Conservation. Archived from the original on Retrieved Williams to Mrs. Heathcote, July 5, Retrieved 26 September Studia Orientalia. ISBN The Crimean War did have its own innovations: massive trench works and trench warfare [ New York: Routledge published Civil War Weapons And Equipment.

War ; Dupuy, Trevor N. Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 10 September The adequacy of transport and supply networks played a major role in shaping strategies for operations throughout the First World War and in influencing their success or failure. Osprey Publishing. November 1, Military History. Mahon and Romana Danysh LOC number: First World War. Retrieved 12 November Western Front — Retrieved 1 August France at War — Portugal in the Great War.

International Encyclopedia of the First World War. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. PMC PMID The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Journal of Hygiene. Acta Chirurgica Belgica. Future Microbiology. Bibcode : PLoSO S2CID The Western Journal of Medicine. Microbiology Society. Retrieved 23 September Bezbednost, Beograd. Medical History. The Biomedical Scientist. Social History of Medicine.

CiteSeerX Dialogues Clin Neurosci. London: Brown Book Group. The Lancet. Armies of the young. BBC News. Aufbau und Verwendung. BBC Guides. Big Sky Publishing, Newport, N. A History of Blitzkrieg. New York: Jove Books. Archived from the original on October 26, A Tomb Called Iwo Jima. Pacific Press. Archived from the original on 12 December Universal Newsreel. Retrieved 22 February Journal of Analytical Toxicology.

ISSN New Haven: Yale University. They make their way to the exit before the buildings explode. Coste gives Sam data leading to the location of the EMPs before they separate. Both Sam and Coste head to hidden missile base on the shores of the Potomac River in order to disarm the EMP missile being prepped there. As they make their way to the base by boat, they are chased and fired upon by Black Arrow and splinter cells in boats and humvees on the shore.

Clearing the way Sam lets Victor off, while he makes by boat to shut down generators powering the searchlights of the base. Switching off the generator alerts the base. Sam is chased back to Victor, who takes out the boats with an RPG. They make their way and disable the last few generators. Sam and Coste then make their way to the missile silo.

Sam cleared the forces around the silo and attempted to disarm the EMP. But the missile was fired. Black Arrow and splinter cells were already inside the White House trying to capture and kill the president.

Sam made his way inside. Inside, Grim contacted him letting him know that they were almost closing in on the president in the Oval Office. Coste also contacted him to tell him that he was inbound with his daughter. Sam ran into Grim, who shot him, to get him closer to the president.

Splinter cells enter the room and then escorted him to Reed. After a long speech, Sam got his chance, grabbing Reed, and killing the five splinter cells guarding him. Sam interrogated him, and Grim killed him. His daughter walked into the Oval Office and they were finally reunited. He and Coste then only take contracts which they believe in. During the first Blacklist attack in Guam, Coste is critically wounded protecting him from a grenade. Two years after the events in D. The unit was mandated to prevent a series of escalating terrorist attacks against U.

Sam goes to Libya to extract Kobin, as he has information about the attack on Guam. Fisher frees and interrogates him, then imprisons him on the Paladin. Following the buyers for Kobin's weapon, 4E goes to a terrorist training camp in Mirawa, eastern Iraq.

Fisher infiltrates and discovers that the man is Jadid Haidosan ex-MI6 agent. Fisher then discovers a kill room with a soldier's corpse, and a message from a man they identify as Majid Sadiqthe leader of the Engineers and another former MI6 agent.

The second Blacklist attack is set in Chicago, IL. The Engineers were trying to poison the city's water supply with weaponized syphilis, which Fisher managed to stop. Tracking down leads, Fisher goes to Paraguay to find Nouri, a source LA Weather - Rifleman - Military Tactics (CD) Engineer soldiers. He breaks into his safe room and then extracts him under fire from a hit squad. Instead of imprisoning him, he turns him loose as an asset. Following intelligence gained from Nouri, Fisher goes to London to uncover what a sleeper cell is doing.

Briggs provides sniper fire while Fisher infiltrates the mill. He sneaks into where they are deploying cargo and plants a tracker on the cargo: a variant of VX nerve gas.

He gets infected but continues the mission. He is briefly captured by Sadiq, who is on-site, but Briggs rescues him and disobeys Sam's order to pursue Sadiq to save his life. Briggs is then taken off active duty. Intelligence gathered in London points to Iran as the force behind the Blacklist. Fisher then escapes the embassy with data on the truth and Briggs picks him up in a van, being subsequently returned to active duty.

They are pursued, and Grim decides to use the drone to free a path. They escape, and President Caldwell says that there was a "drone malfunction.

The third Blacklist attack targets Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Engineers have held hostages on a metro train and also plan to bomb outside the subway terminals into the city streets, where Sam and Briggs cooperate and take out the Engineer driver with their own sniper rifles. Fourth Echelon is held up in thwarting the fourth Blacklist attack, American Fuel, by a virus implanted in the Paladin. With the combined efforts of Kobin and Fisher, the plane is kept from crashing at the last moment, but the attack goes through, and the continuity of government protocol is issued.

The Engineers introduced a virus into its fire suppression systems, then rammed a tanker truck into the facility. Fourth Echelon deployed Fisher into the facility to activate a terminal so Charlie could reactivate the defenses.

From the intelligence acquired on the ground from Navy SEALs, Fisher then chased after the High-Value on-site Engineer, interrogating him until he managed to get the fact that Sadiq was going to attack Site F directly.

Sadiq raids the bunker of Site F, taking all the high government officials hostage. Sam surprises him and they engage in close combat. Sam manages to defeat him, but Sadiq claims that he'd already won, threatening Sam that if he kills him, all twelve nations that stand behind him will rise up in his defense.

If he puts Sadiq on trial, he will spill every secret he knows about special operations, including Fourth Echelon. Leaving him with no choice, Sam employs the Fifth Freedom and unofficially imprisons him. Majid Sadiq was announced dead by President Caldwell, who relays it to the country without revealing the existence of Fourth Echelon or anyone's name on it. Sam than reunites with Victor Coste, who had recovered from his injuries and was in the process of interrogating an imprisoned Sadiq.

Some time duringseven years after the Blacklist operation, Sam callsign " Matchwood " is deployed to Bolivia in order to recover sensitive intelligence data from a rogue CIA officer. Sam's deployment takes him to a Unidad base in La Cruz, where he infiltrates the base ahead of the Ghosts and assassinates the rogue agent prior to Nomad's arrival. Upon greeting Nomad, Sam hacks into the Unidad servers in order to erase all traces of the sensitive information while Nomad's team provides tactical support and security.

While exfiltrating from the base, Sam discloses the nature of the intelligence to Nomad, revealing it to contain sensitive high-technology research and development that could "change the nature of warfare" and "put the special operations community out of business. Upon having a brief reunion with Bowman, Sam learns that Grim has another emergency for him to take care of, hearing the words "Empty Quiver" U.

Fisher compliments Nomad's skills and takes a brief coffee break with Bowman before returning to the Paladin. InSam was on the run from an unknown enemy. As a cover, he accepted Harry Pandey's offer to join Team Rainbowadopting the codename of " Zero ". Sam was brutal in his training sessions at the Stadiumregularly taking down entire teams singlehandedly. To counteract the arthritis from his growing age, Fisher would self-administer the nanobots Lera "Finka" Melnikova used to treat her neuropathy.

InSam is assigned by the U. Given the fact that Auroa can't be entered, Fisher calls in the help of Victor Coste, who comes to Auroa on the pretext of revising Sentinel Corporation. Sam and Coste leave the island in the CB Paladin before the drone control program gets reactivated.

While certain information from the novels has later been confirmed by the games or concept artwork, their overall level of canonicity is unclear. Author Raymond Benson who wrote the first two Splinter Cell novels under the pseudonym "David Michaels" said in an interview with Splinter Cell fan-site The Fairer Sects that before he wrote the first novel, Ubisoft gave him a Splinter Cell "bible" that was written when they created the first game.

This contained character sketches, info on Sam's tools and gadgets, and other useful information. According to Benson, the details in his first novel about Sam's past; his marriage to Regan, how she died, as well as specifics on Sarah, and his age in relation to Lambert, came from the Splinter Cell bible and Ubisoft.

Sam Fisher's father was a year veteran case officer for the CIA [25] who worked as a specialist in agent handling and defection. InFisher's father made arrangements to smuggle Ivan and his son from the country, only for the plan to go awry at the last minute. In a running gun battle at the Russian-Finnish border, Ivan Limonovich was killed, however Fisher's father managed to slip across the border with Pyotr. Fisher's father brought Pyotr back to the States and the Fisher family adopted Pyotr as their son and raised him as Sam's brother.

Pyotr was still young and had not learned any Russian or gained an accent, and did not have strong memories of his father. The following operations in which Sam Fisher had involvement take place in the Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell series of novels.

In the s, Sam LA Weather - Rifleman - Military Tactics (CD) saw action during the Soviet War in Afghanistanwhere he was forced to hide under dead bodies to avoid being killed in the middle of an operation. Sometime between April and JulySam Fisher led a squad of Navy SEALs on a capture-or-kill operation to hunt down a French black market arms dealer who had been arming both sides of a bush war between Mali and Mauritania in the African country of Senegal.

Fisher and his SEAL team tracked down the arms dealer in Dakar where they eliminated him after weeks of searching through the jungles along the Senegal-Mali border. While preparing to test a new DARPA product, code-named the Goshawk, Sam Fisher is called to intercept a cargo freighter speeding towards the eastern seaboard. The freighter named the Trego is loaded down with radioactive material.

Fisher boards the ship and quickly reaches the bridge to find one Middle-Eastern crew member. Fisher attempts to disable the man and does so, but not before the man enters the command to speed the boat up further.

Fisher proceeds to slow the ship by disabling her engines. Meanwhile, the residents of Slipstone, New Mexico begin showing the symptoms of and then dying from radiation poisoning. In late — earlySam Fisher was on assignment in the Far East for three months.

He was in Hong Kong preparing for the Macau job. He collected data from a casino's computer and killed several individuals, including Kim Wei Lo. In the spring ofan Iranian terrorist group known as "The Shadows," led by Nasir Tarighian, planned to use a weapon of mass destruction codenamed "The Babylon Phoenix" against the city of Baghdad as revenge for the actions taken by Iraq against Iran during the s.

While there really isn't much benefit to the group today, Tarighian attempts to sell the scheme to his organization by claiming that it would also create further disorder in Iraq and in the Middle East, which would inevitably cause the people to turn against the "West," namely the United States since Iraq is currently under their watch.

Tarighian, a former "great warrior" during the Iran-Iraq War and often proclaimed hero in Iran, hoped that by doing this the Iranian people would rejoice and urge the Iranian government to invade and conquer Iraq after the U. Most of the members of the Shadows disagree with the course of action, feeling that the result is extremely unlikely and that the scheme is nothing more than a year-old vendetta by Tarighian to get back at Iraq for the death of his wife and children LA Weather - Rifleman - Military Tactics (CD) the war.

These members feel the same effect of destabilization in the region can be achieved by attacking either Tel Aviv or Jerusalem in Israel.

Meanwhile, an arms dealing organization known as "The Shop" has taken the liberty of assassinating Splinter Cells whenever possible thus to increase their profit margin by keeping the shipment of arms from falling into unwanted hands. The Shop is one of the few organizations in the world that is aware of Third Echelon, who deploys Sam Fisher to the Middle East to uncover the truth about the murder of a Splinter Cell and track down the source of a shipment of arms seized by the Iraqi police.

There he surveys and infiltrates numerous locations relating to both the Shop and the Shadows, all the while unaware that the Shop has targeted him and his daughter, Sarah. Taking place almost a year after the Babylon Phoenix Crisis, the plot picks up with Third Echelon attempting to search and bring to justice the members of The Shop, an international arms dealing ring that played a large part during the crisis.

While Sam Fisher is working to collect information on The Shop in Ukraine and Russia, Third Echelon is continuing its investigation into how The Shop had previously managed to gain the identity of a number of Splinter Cells and assassinate them as well. However, when a German scientist named Jeinsen, who defected to the United States from East Germany long ago, goes missing and then reappears dead in Hong Kong, heads begin to turn.

Jeinsen had developed a new submarine vehicle for the United States Navy, that could theoretically carry a nuclear weapon. Sam Fisher is sent to learn why the scientist was in Hong Kong and who killed him; it is suspected that a local group of LA Weather - Rifleman - Military Tactics (CD) named "the Lucky Dragons" had involvement.

What the Third Echelon does not yet realize is that Jeinsen, the Lucky Dragons, The Shop, and a traitor inside their own government LA Weather - Rifleman - Military Tactics (CD) all part of a much larger picture involving a rogue Chinese general named Lan Tun, with ambitions to invade and conquer Taiwan.

With Fisher not even aware that he is the world's only hope of stopping an international crisis, he has to balance his job and a new romantic relationship that he is hoping will finally bring happiness to his life.

Ultimately, General Tun threatens to use the submarine vehicle to detonate a nuclear weapon off the coast of California, destroying L. Fisher manages to foil the plot, and all the conspirators involved including the traitor, the general, and The Shop are killed. Turns out, Sam's estranged brother, Peter birth name Pyotr Limonovichhas been found barely alive off the coast of Greenland. Sam is told that Peter has developed a strange disease and has few days to live.

It is soon revealed that Sam's brother died of poisoning caused by plutonium hydride, or PuH This deadly powder is 1,x finer than flour and is capable of wiping out New York's entire population with just a cup's worth of the chemical. Although driven by first solely by vengeance, Sam soon realizes that Peter's death should be the least of his worries as a network of Kyrgyz Islamic fundamentalists have toppled the moderate government of Kyrgyztan and, with the help of the North Korean government, have devised the ultimate antidote against the pervasive influence of the West and its technology: they will try to mutate a species of petroleum-eating Chytridiomycota fungus into a strain capable of making the whole world's oil supply disappear, a threat Fisher and Lambert continually refer to as Manas, in reference to the Kyrgyz epic poem.

In order to do this, the terrorists snatch some of the world's leading scientists and force them to cooperate. Sam gets his final lead by tracking one of the abducted scientists in a search that will lead him to a place such as the streets of Montreal, Quebec, Canada, an isolated Kyrgyz community in Cape Breton Island, the Great Rift Valley in Kenya, Pyongyang, North Korea and a Kyrgyz complex hidden in the Tian Shan mountain range.

Sam is on the run and becomes a freelance operative selling his abilities, and taking missions where he can, in order to make money to survive, while staying one step ahead of Third Echelon. Except for the artillery and the police in the second Boer War, no uniforms were worn, the burghers preferring drab everyday clothes.

The Boer force is the classic example of a citizen army, because virtually the entire white male population of the republics between the ages of sixteen and 60 was conscriptable for unpaid military service. Growing up on the farms with a rifle in their hands made the burghers generally good marksmen, with the ability to judge distance accurately.

The commando formation for driving home an attack was a loose swarm intent on outflanking the opponents. Once the enemy was located by efficient scouting, the commando would approach in a solid column under cover of dead ground in order to get within effective rifle range. Then the men would get into line, gallop into the nearest dead ground, dismount and open individual fire.

Essential tactics were speed in concentration and attack, and a readiness to withdraw to a more favourable position in case the fire-fight was going against them. The commando system called for initiative and self-reliance, which were essential in irregular warfare when men were widely scattered and not in close communication with their officers.

Although the commandos had had mixed success against the indigenous black societies within their borders, they were to prove their mettle in the wars against the British. It was very similar in manufacture, sighting, calibre, weight and ammunition to the Martini-Henry Mark II carried by British troops. In the British army the officers were from the gentry and the professional middle classes, and the recruits from the poorest sections of society.

Firing from medium to long range — to 1, yards — was delivered in volleys. Independent fire was normally only ordered from close range — less than yards. The Boer commandos — as had been their custom in the wars against the black communities — lay siege to the British garrisons.

Before the Boer Wars, the late Victorian Army had been engaged in colonial campaigns against irregulars inferior in armaments, organisation and discipline.

The Boer experience therefore came as a total surprise. In the first Boer War the British uniform consisted of the serge frock, which was scarlet for the infantry and engineers, dark green for the rifles and blue for all others. Dark blue trousers were worn with a red welt down the seam for infantry and a wide red stripe for artillery, with black leather boots. Highland regiments wore tartan kilts instead of trousers.

The 92nd Highlanders came to South Africa with khaki tunics instead of scarlet ones. Khaki was finally adopted in as service wear overseas, so the British soldier of the second Boer War was clad in khaki. Upon the outbreak of the first Boer War, the Boer commandos — as had been their custom in the wars against the black communities — lay siege to the British garrisons in the towns of Potchefstroom, Pretoria, Rustenburg, Standerton and Marabastad near Pietersburg, in an attempt to starve them into submission.

The British were driven back with heavy losses. During the night of 26 February, Colley occupied Majuba Hill, which towered over the countryside on the Transvaal border, with men.

These comprised two companies each of the 92nd Highlanders and 58th Regiment, and the Naval Brigade. The Boers stormed Majuba Hill, using dead ground to reach the top, and achieved a brilliant victory. Instead, early on 27 February, the Boers stormed the mountain using dead ground to reach the top, and achieved a brilliant victory. Seven officers and 50 men were taken prisoner. Colley was among the dead. The Boers lost one man killed and six wounded, one mortally.

The Pretoria Convention of 3 August did not reinstate fully the independence of the Transvaal, but kept the state under British suzerainty. This vague concept meant that Britain retained supervisory control of the foreign affairs of the Transvaal and of its internal legislation with regard to the black societies. However, the London Convention of 27 February conferred full internal independence on the Transvaal.

The discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand in made the Transvaal, until then a struggling Boer republic, potentially a political and economic threat to British supremacy in South Africa at a time when Britain was engaged in the scramble for African colonies with France and Germany. The British believed that the Transvaal was pressing for a united South Africa under the Afrikaaners.

When the scheme of Cecil Rhodes, Prime Minister of the Cape Colony, to overthrow the Transvaal government of President Kruger by means of the so-called Jameson Raid, failed inAfrikaner nationalism again, like inflared up all over South Africa.

The Orange Free State concluded an alliance with the Transvaal.


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