Other Places - Various - Lunateka Vol. 1 (CD)
As a metaltitanium is recognized for its high strength-to-weight ratio. It Other Places - Various - Lunateka Vol. 1 (CD) paramagnetic and has fairly low electrical and thermal conductivity compared to other metals. Commercially pure Certain titanium alloys e. Titanium is not as hard as some grades of heat-treated steel; it is non-magnetic and a poor conductor of heat and electricity.
Machining requires precautions, because the material can gall unless sharp tools and proper cooling methods are used. Like steel structures, those made from titanium have a fatigue limit that guarantees longevity in some applications. Like aluminium and magnesiumthe surface of titanium metal and its alloys oxidize immediately upon exposure to air to form a thin non-porous passivation layer that protects the bulk metal from further oxidation or corrosion.
Titanium is capable of withstanding attack by dilute sulfuric and hydrochloric acidschloride solutions, and most organic acids. Melting is possible only in an inert atmosphere or in a vacuum. Such pumps inexpensively produce extremely low pressures in ultra-high vacuum systems. Titanium is the ninth-most abundant element in Earth 's crust 0. It is present as oxides in most igneous rocksin sediments derived from them, in living things, and natural bodies of water.
Its proportion in soils is approximately 0. Common titanium-containing minerals are anatasebrookiteilmeniteperovskiterutileand titanite sphene. Of these minerals, only rutile and ilmenite have economic importance, yet even they are difficult to find in high concentrations. About 6. Total reserves of titanium are estimated to exceed million tonnes. The concentration of titanium is about 4 picomolar in the ocean. No evidence exists for a biological role, although rare organisms are known to accumulate high concentrations of titanium.
Naturally occurring titanium is composed of five stable isotopes : 46 Ti, 47 Ti, 48 Ti, 49 Ti, and 50 Ti, with 48 Ti being the most abundant At least 21 radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable of which are 44 Ti with a half-life of 63 years; 45 Ti, All other radioactive isotopes have half-lives less than 33 seconds, with the majority less than half a second.
The isotopes of titanium range in atomic weight from Titanium becomes radioactive upon bombardment with deuteronsemitting mainly positrons and hard gamma rays. Because of its high oxidation state, titanium IV compounds exhibit a high degree of covalent bonding. The most important oxide is TiO 2which exists in three important polymorphs ; anatasebrookiteand rutile.
All of these are white diamagnetic solids, although mineral samples can appear dark see rutile. They adopt polymeric structures in which Ti is surrounded by six oxide ligands that link to other Ti centers.
The term titanates usually refers to titanium IV compounds, as represented by barium titanate BaTiO 3. With a perovskite structure, this material exhibits piezoelectric properties and is used as a transducer in the interconversion of sound and electricity. Star sapphires and rubies get their asterism star-forming shine from the presence of titanium dioxide impurities.
A variety of reduced oxides suboxides of titanium are known, mainly reduced stoichiometries of titanium dioxide obtained by atmospheric plasma spraying. Ti 3 O 5described as a Ti IV -Ti III species, is a purple semiconductor produced by reduction of TiO 2 with hydrogen at high temperatures,  Other Places - Various - Lunateka Vol.
1 (CD) is used industrially when surfaces need to be vapour-coated with titanium dioxide: it evaporates as pure TiO, whereas TiO 2 evaporates as a mixture of oxides and deposits coatings with variable refractive index. The alkoxides of titanium IVprepared by reacting TiCl 4 with alcohols, are colourless compounds that convert to the dioxide on reaction with water.
They are industrially useful for depositing solid TiO 2 via the sol-gel process. Titanium isopropoxide is used in the synthesis of chiral organic compounds via the Sharpless epoxidation. Titanium forms a variety of sulfides, but only TiS 2 has attracted significant interest. It adopts a layered structure and was used as a cathode in the development of lithium batteries. Because Ti IV is a "hard cation"the sulfides of titanium are unstable and tend to hydrolyze to the oxide with release of hydrogen sulfide.
Titanium tetrachloride titanium IV chloride, TiCl 4  is a colorless volatile liquid commercial samples are yellowish that, in air, hydrolyzes with spectacular emission of white clouds. Via the Kroll processTiCl 4 is used in the conversion of titanium ores to titanium metal.
Titanium tetrachloride is also used to make titanium dioxide, e. A notable example is titanium III chloride TiCl 3which is used as a catalyst for production of polyolefins see Ziegler—Natta catalyst and a reducing agent in organic chemistry.
Owing to the important role of titanium compounds as polymerization catalyst, compounds with Ti-C bonds have been intensively studied.
The most common organotitanium complex is titanocene dichloride C 5 H 5 2 TiCl 2. Related compounds include Tebbe's reagent and Petasis reagent. Titanium forms carbonyl complexese. Following the success of platinum-based chemotherapy, titanium IV complexes were among the first non-platinum compounds to be tested for cancer treatment. The advantage of titanium compounds lies in their high efficacy and low toxicity in vivo. Despite these advantages the first candidate compounds failed clinical trials due to insufficient efficacy to toxicity ratios and formulation complications.
Titanium was discovered in by the clergyman and amateur geologist William Gregor as an inclusion of a mineral in CornwallGreat Britain. The currently known processes for extracting titanium from its various ores are laborious and costly; it is not possible to reduce the ore by heating with carbon as in iron smelting because titanium combines with the carbon to produce titanium carbide.
Titanium of very high purity was made in small quantities when Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered the iodide process inby reacting with iodine and decomposing the formed vapours over a hot filament to pure metal. In the s and s, the Soviet Union pioneered the use of titanium in military and submarine applications  Alfa class and Mike class  as part of programs related to the Cold War.
Throughout the Cold War period, titanium was considered a strategic material by the U. The processing of titanium metal occurs in four major steps:  reduction of titanium ore into "sponge", a porous form; melting of sponge, or sponge plus a master alloy to form an ingot; primary fabrication, where an ingot is converted into general mill products such as billetbar, platesheetstrip, and tube ; and secondary fabrication of finished shapes from mill products.
Because it cannot be readily produced by reduction of titanium dioxide titanium metal is obtained by reduction of TiCl 4 with magnesium metal in the Kroll process.
The complexity of this batch production in the Kroll process explains the relatively high market value of titanium,  despite the Kroll process being less expensive than the Hunter process. In this process, the chlorine gas is passed over a red-hot mixture of rutile or ilmenite in the presence of carbon.
A more recently developed batch production method, the FFC Cambridge process reduces titanium dioxide electrochemically in molten calcium chloride to produce titanium metal as either powder or sponge.
Common titanium alloys are made by reduction. For example, cuprotitanium rutile with Other Places - Various - Lunateka Vol. 1 (CD) added is reducedferrocarbon titanium ilmenite reduced with coke in an electric furnaceand manganotitanium rutile with manganese or manganese oxides are reduced.
About fifty grades of titanium alloys are designed and currently used, although only a couple of dozen are readily available commercially. Those four vary in tensile strength as a function of oxygen content, with grade 1 being the most ductile lowest tensile strength with an oxygen content of 0. Titanium powder is manufactured using a flow production process known as the Armstrong process  that is similar to the batch production Hunter process.
A stream of titanium tetrachloride gas is added to a stream of molten sodium ; the products sodium chloride salt and titanium particles is filtered from the extra sodium. Titanium is then separated from the salt by water washing. Both sodium and chlorine are recycled to produce and process more titanium tetrachloride. All welding of titanium must be done in an inert atmosphere of argon or helium to shield it from contamination with atmospheric gases oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen. Titanium cannot be soldered without first pre- plating it in a metal that is solderable.
Commercially pure flat product sheet, plate can be formed readily, but processing must take into account of the tendency of the metal to springback. This is especially true of certain high-strength alloys. Sign Up to Last. Add artwork. Related Tags Add tags. External Links Apple Music. Artist images. Deleting this artist may remove other artists and scrobbles from your library - please handle with caution! Note: You can view albums tagged as 'Various Artists' in your library here.
Complete Mythology. Syl Johnson. Forecasting The Minneapolis Sound. Purple Snow. Dark Rags at Dawn. Nikki Sudden.
Technicolor Paradise. It's All Pop! When I See The Sun. Rat Conspiracy. Other Places - Various - Lunateka Vol. 1 (CD) A Trip To the Valley. Valley of The Sun. Temple in the Forest. David Naegele. Crystal Cave Back To Atlantis. Upper Astral. We Can Help You. Other Places - Various - Lunateka Vol. 1 (CD) cuca Collection. Step By Step. In Cuca Country Vol. In The Cuca Garage. Spare Parts. Nineties Headquarters. The Nineties Issue. Anderson questioned the soldiers and told them how Union troops had recently killed and scalped a Other Places - Various - Lunateka Vol.
1 (CD) of men from his command. I will show you that I can kill men with as much skill and rapidity as anybody. From this time on I ask no quarter and give none. I have never allowed my men to do such things. Anderson has often been accused of having Federal scalps attached to his saddle bows. Research has discovered the truth behind this fabrication.
When Anderson rode into Boonville to meet with General Price, another guerrilla leader, John Pringle, with his own group of partisans, accompanied Anderson into town. Price ordered the scalps removed before he would talk to the guerrilla leaders. Cox of the 1st Regiment, Missouri State Militia. After photographing his dead body they cut off his head and mounted it on top of a telegraph pole in town. Southern sympathizers among the local women had carried flowers to decorate the grave.
The Jayhawkers seeing the flowers alighted from their horses and proceeded to stamp the bouquets into the ground, kicking the soft mound and stamping it down to an even level, resulting in the difficulty in later years as to its location. Bleeding Kansas and the Missouri Border War.
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