Wait And See - The Wackers - Hot Wacks (CD, Album)
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More information at returns. Postage and handling. The seller has not specified a postage method to Russian Federation. He is way better than I at surprises. What's the most important thing about the Holidays for you? Making sure I and my family feel the Christmas "spirit".
Not just the magical, charitable feelings you get, but the joyous gratitude that "God so loved the world that He gave His Only Begotten Son, that whosoever shall believe in Him shall not perish, but have everlasting life. What is your favorite Holiday Dessert? Homemade berry pie a la mode. What is your favorite holiday tradition?
Spending time together as a family decorating the tree, cooking and baking, watching traditional Christmas movies, etc. What tops your tree? A silver star that my parents purchased in Germany around the time that I was born. We had a gold one just like it on our tree growing up. Which do you prefer giving or Receiving? It's so much easier than trying to come up with just the right gift. But, I do love the feeling you get when you really hit the mark and get something they absolutely love and were not at all expecting.
Its too bad more of my gifts aren't like that. Although, I try! And I do love seeing the excited faces of children opening gifts. What is your favorite Christmas Song? It's a lullaby to Jesus that I learned in high school choir. Every once in awhile the Mormon Tab sings it. I'm really hoping they will at the First Presidency Fireside tonight. What is your favorite Christmas story?
I'm not a huge movie watcher, but I'm a sucker for sappy Christmas ones. That was fun! Feel free to play, too! I love Christmas and all the traditions that come with it.
Unfortunately, it just isn't humanly possible to do them all and still manage to enjoy them. If I try, I'm a stressed out basketcase by the time Christmas actually arrives. But, if I sit down and try to eliminate some, I feel cheated somehow. Like I am giving up things that I love.
What I have learned to do, instead, is to look at traditions from a new perspective: When we had our second child, I let my husband in on a way he could be perceived as a "cool dad". I told him of the tradition my dad had of making bannana splits for dinner whenever my mom had a baby. It is true. My mom only had two children after me, but I still call the bannana split dinner a tradition and think my dad was super fun for doing it. I realized after thinking about this, that a tradition doesn't have to be something that happens every single year to be a cherished memory for my family.
So, each year I pick and choose the traditions we will do that year. And then I let the others go, guilt free, knowing that I can do them next year. For example, this year I am not doing Christmas cards, a family picture or gifts to the neighbors.
I will be helping the kids make gifts for their teachers and a gingerbread house. Both of which we haven't done in awhile. I will also ask my family what they most want me to bake, and then just try one or two other things I've been dying to try.
Of course, there are some traditions that get carried out every year, because we love them the most. But, overall, this strategy let's me do the ones I'm most in the mood for, and keeps down my guilt level over not getting everything done each year. This also applies to other traditions.
I only make my kid's Halloween costumes every other year. I don't think I would enjoy doing it more often than that. And this way costumes get a bit more wear for all that effort. If they don't like what they were last year, they can choose another option from the costume box. I, also, only do the big friend birthday parties on odd numbered birthdays. Even years are family only. This maintains my enthusiasm for going all out on fun themed parties, and reserves significant birthdays baptism, deacon ordination for special family only celebrations.
Works for me! I was recently reading the comments to a post written by Les, at Smart Mama. An anonymous commenter there made the statement: "I guess I'm a bit skeptical of the blog world - at least the small portion that I've seen. All it seems like is a way of saying "look at all of the things I can do" or "look at my beautiful home insert other words here. My husband always says that the blogging world is a big mutual admiration society.
Well, yeah, and it's great! Okay, we may show off a bit sometimes. But, one of the nice things about blogging is that it is a place to share yourself and hope someone notices and supports your efforts. You just can't do some of this in real life. People think you are a huge bore if you constantly show them cute pictures of your kids unless they are grandparentsor your latest projects and creations.
But, in the bloggy world, it doesn't matter. If someone isn't interested in your latest scrapbook pages or doesn't really think your kids are all that cute, they can just visit someone else's blog.
Maybe we don't always share our failures, or weaknesses, or the cluttered corners of our homes or lives. But, generally we beat ourselves up enough about them. We don't need to expose them for further critique. Maybe that presents a limited view of who we really are. And maybe we need to be braver and share some of that side of ourselves more.
And some bloggers are much better at this than I. But, really, a blog is the person's who writes it, and she and he should just share whatever they want! But, just in case I have inadvertently duped someone into thinking I am a perfect person Bwaha Ha Ha! I am not a gardening expert. I am an enthusiastic gardener who tries many things, but that only means that I've also failed at quite a few, as well. Take my garden this year. These are the things that I planted that failed, or that I failed to do with what I had planned: Beets Never got around to pickling any yet.
They sit in a big bag on my counter feeling ignored. Beans leaves completely eaten by rabbits, no beans. Bell Pepper two tiny peppers that never got big enough to harvest Jalepeno Pepper 2 peppers Pickling Cucumber Produced fine, but I never got around to pickling any.
Scarlet marigold very few germinated Red Salvia stunted when seedlings, barely produced any flowers Vinca died as seedlings Blue Morning Glory only had a couple blooms before frost killed it. Plagued by aphids. Scarlet Morning Glory never germinated Giant White Moonflower never germinated Also, the daffodils I transplanted failed to bloom, two new perennial plants did not survive the winter, and all of my lilies I planted last fall emerged, turned brown and died.
I've also never successfully grown an ear of corn, and have had my tomatoes and cucurbits completely die some years before producing at all. My thumb is not as green as I would like. It is, however, a very enthusiastic yellow-brown! I, also, am not great at scrapbooking, quilting, cross stitching, or knitting.
I tried to crochet snowflake Christmas ornaments one year. The two lop-sided ones I managed to finish adorn my tree each year, keeping me appropriately humble. I have severely scorched two pans making dinner since I started blogging. No, it is NOT related! My toddler spends half her life wearing only a diaper, and none of my babies have slept through the night before a year.
My kitchen floor always seems to need to be mopped. I find housework boring. Sunday, my family had chocolate chip cookies and popcorn for dinner because I was too lazy to make anything else. And I didn't get the Book of Mormon read by the end of last year. Finally, my "to file" drawer has multiplied into a teetering pile of boxes on top of the filing cabinet.
And, no, these weren't the worst of the things I could have shared about myself. Are you just shocked? I can't help but wonder if the anonymous commenter felt just a bit jealous when she made her comment.
After all, Smart Mama is an extremely talented, well traveled and smart woman, with a beautiful home and children. Heck, I'm sometimes jealous of her! But, someone once said, "If you compare yourself to others, you will either end up bitter or proud. Labels: Personal Improvement. Monday, October 16, Halloween Meme. Sketchy of Living the Sweet Life tagged me for a Halloween meme. I love Halloween, and the questions to this one are likewise as fun!
What's the scariest movie you've ever seen? I really don't like scary movies. Not Psycho, for sure. I remember being so disappointed in that one. Actually it was a tv show that has scared me the most. The Little House on the Praire episode where the blind school burns down, and one of the teachers gets trapped on the top floor with Mary's baby.
The image of her screaming and burning to death as she wacks the baby against a window has haunted me for years. Okay, that question wasn't so fun after all. What was your favorite Halloween Costume from childhood, and adulthood?
My favorite as a kid was a gypsy. I wore canning rings as earrings! I later wore a gypsy costume in high school to play the fortune teller for a neighborhood carnival. There was a photographer there from the paper who kept trying to take my picture.
I was self conscious, of course, and kept trying to avoid him, mostly hiding in my sweltering hot tent. Somehow, he managed to get one of me as I peeked out. I was on the front page the next day.
My brief moment of fame! If you had an unlimited budget, what would your Fantasy Costume be for this Halloween? I'd dress the whole family in costumes from Lord of the Rings.
Everyone could find a character they liked, and I could wear one of those cool Elven maiden costumes. When was the last time you went Trick Or Treating? Last year I was the candy giver outer. What is your favorite Halloween treat?
My favorite candy is definitely dark chocolate. But, I have to pick candy corn for this question. I remember as a kid relishing them as I ate them one color at a time. Tell us about a scary nightmare you had. When I was around 7, I remember having a recurring nightmare about walking home from school everyday with a group of kids. On the way home, we would stop in the field behind my Grandpa's house, pull the wooden cover off of a deep hole dug in the dirt, and help kids out of it.
Then a really mean girl pushed some new kids in it, we replaced the lid, and repeated the whole thing the next day. I always woke up when I got pushed and started falling into the dark hole. I had to invent elaborate happy endings to get over that one.
What is your Supernatural Fear? Possession by evil spirits. What is your Creepy-Crawlie Fear? There are these bugs called cave crickets or camel crickets. They look like hump backed spiders with long bent legs. They can jump 6 feet in any direction. You have one chance to kill them. In Hinduism, the doctrine of metempsychosis the transmigration of souls holds that a human soul can be reincarnated as an animal.
Therefore, the idea that an animal could conceive of a narrative much less communicate it through spoken language is not out of the question.
Similarly, notions of fiction and the literary representation of reality differ among religious groups. These attitudes both exercise influence upon a frametale translated from another culture and in turn are changed by the frametale genre, which brings its own narratology to bear upon the culture by which it is adopted. The literary practice of the frametale in medieval Iberia dates to at least the tenth century. At the beginning of the twelfth century, the Aragonese converso Petrus Alfonsi wrote the Disciplina clericalis, a collection of stories in Latin culled from the Arabic and Aesopic traditions as a dialogue between teacher and student.
This list, although incomplete, illustrates the scope and diversity of the medieval Iberian frametale tradition, one expressed in several languages over approximately four hundred years. How to form a vision of a cohesive frametale tradition despite such temporal and cultural distance? Rather, I see medieval Iberia as home to a literary polysystem24 that fostered various types of literary production, transmission, and reception writing, reading, copying, listening, discussion, etc.
In short, I maintain that the Conde Lucanor, the Libro de buen amor, and the Spill were not products grown in a Romanic hothouse, but rather are representative of a medieval Iberian culture and literary tradition that cannot be contained or adequately addressed by Romance studies alone.
These texts are examples of Castilian and Valencian language production in a system that was the site of literary activity in several languages, Latin, Romance, Hebrew, and Arabic. An examination of the social contexts of our authors reveals a good deal of bi- and multilingualism, di- and polyglossia, conversion, and other types of crossings and syntheses.
Petrus Alfonsi was born a Jew and received an education in Hebrew and Arabic. His conversion to Christianity and extensive travel throughout Christian Europe is a documented source of diffusion of much Arabic and Hebrew learning. Juan Ruiz lived and studied in a Toledo that was host to a great deal of Arabic and Hebrew literary activity in the early s.
Don Juan Manuel counted among his allies several Muslim monarchs and as Adelantado Governor of the frontier of Murcia, carried out many diplomatic missions in the Kingdom of Granada.
While the political boundaries on the Iberian Peninsula were subject to the fortunes of war, political power was only one factor that defined a medieval 24 The literary polysystem is discussed in depth in chapter 2.
The frametale is the genre most characteristic of this practice. His collection of tales and fables, the Disciplina clericalis, introduced Latin audiences to the frametale genre, to a new way of telling stories in writing. Petrus Alfonsi was a product of a frontier culture, a person who was able to capitalize on the drastic political and cultural changes taking place in the frontier society of twelfth-century Aragon.
That is, they are simply mentioned as having narrated an anecdote, but are not portrayed narrating it. Jewish authors writing in Hebrew later adapt these ways of representing performance in accordance with their own religious and literary tradition.
All of these Album) commingle in the medieval Iberian frametale tradition, which gives us the Conde Lucanor and the Libro de buen amor. The translation of Calila e Dimna occurs within the context of the establishment of Castilian as a language of literary production and as part of an ambitious royal project of linguistic prestige-building.
Despite its origins in the Muslim- and Arabic-dominant literary introduction 15 system of al-Andalus, there are no significant barriers to the reception of Calila e Dimna by Christian, Castilian audiences.
The secular nature of the tales and pragmatic didactic voice of the author set the stage for a common community of reception that included both Arabic and Castilian audiences. Roig wrote during a difficult time of social change that was punctuated by an explosion of bourgeois wealth, literary experimentation by authors rejecting the values of traditional poetry, and ethnic tensions that periodically overflowed into violence.
It introduced European audiences to new stories and to new ways of telling them, and by virtue of its international popularity, exercised significant influence on the development of early European vernacular prose fiction.
For a bibliography of pre editions and translations, see Chauvin 9: 1— All citations are from the edition of Miethe. English translations are my own, following the Spanish of Ducay.
Petrus Alfonsi indeed introduced a Latin readership to a great amount of material previously available only in Arabic and Hebrew. This is noteworthy and important for students of medieval Iberia.
However, in the rush to talk and think about the history of great ideas and great books it is easy to overlook the role of experience of the human beings who nurture, develop, translate, and disseminate these ideas and books. The cultural crossings, hybridity, and synthesis that characterize medieval Iberian literature are the result not only of cooperation and collaboration convivenciabut also of war, conquest, colonization, and intolerance contravivencia.
Along the road that eventually led him to intellectual stardom in Latin Western Europe lay significant obstacles. Whether he was a native of Aragon who saw his homeland invaded and conquered or whether he was one of the many Jewish refugees from Almoravid al-Andalus who migrated north to Christian kingdoms, he made what must have been a painful decision to embrace a colonial religion and culture.
It is fitting that we read his work with this experience in mind. Brown The Dialogus is a literary dramatization of the internal debate between his Jewish and Christian selves, while the DC is a collection of material drawn from Arab and Jewish tradition placed in the service of medieval Latin and therefore Christian literature. They are a literary reflection of life on the cultural frontier. However, Latin was overwhelmingly the language of the dominant Christian religion and government.
See, for example, Burns Islam and Lourie. Contributions by Hispano-Medievalists are conspicuously absent from the collections of essays edited by Jeffrey Cohen and Kabir and Williams. For an excellent overview of medieval postcolonial criticism, see Holsinger.
See, for example, Balard and Ducellier, and Bartlett. He received a double education in classical Arabic literature, philosophy, and the sciences, as well as in Hebrew and the Jewish rabbinic and literary tradition. On the one hand, they were deeply attached to Jewish tradition and meticulous in their observance of Jewish law; on the other, they were aficionados of Arabic paideia cultural education in Hebrew dress. On the cultural scene of medieval Aragon in particular, see Lomba Fuentes.
Another, more renowned Jewish polymath of the time was Abraham ibn Ezra — Ornament 11 These courtier-rabbis lived biculturally, moving back and forth between two cultures.
For him, biculturation designates not only contact of cultures; in addition, it describes a situation where the two cultures achieve a balance that makes it difficult to determine which is the dominant and which is the subordinate culture.
Medieval Christian doctrine is inconsistent regarding the position of Jews within Christian society. While theologians were in agreement that Judaism was a false religion, some of them held that the Jews nonetheless served an important function within the Christian world, serving as a living example of those who would reject and betray Christ.
Not surprisingly, treatment of Jews by both Church and secular authorities was not always in 14 For an exhaustive study of the legal status of Jews in medieval Christianity, see Pakter. In the Dialogus, he is faced with the problem of how to characterize in writing the conflictive relationship between the religions of his former and present selves. Despite significant historical and circumstantial differences, his situation prefigures that of the thousands of Castilian and Aragonese conversos of the late fourteenth- and fifteenthcenturies.
Even when accepted as Christians, conversos were marked by difference. Although the available information concerning his personal circumstances is scarce, we do know a good deal about the times in which Petrus Alfonsi lived. Aragon in the twelfth century was a frontier society in the throes of dramatic social and political transition.
Even in such a setting, it is no small matter for a man to change his religion, his identity, and his language of written expression in adulthood. While these changes enabled Petrus Alfonsi to have a career as a member of the dominant culture of his times, they must also have brought about some measure of personal crisis.
This extended equivocation gave rise to a tradition of disputation between Christianity and Judaism to which the Dialogus belongs. For a brief history of this tradition, see Sapir Abulafia. For a study of the martyrological poetry resulting from the violence, see Einbinder. He fared quite well in the transition to Christian sovereignty under Pedro I — Catholic doctrine had long held Judaism in open contempt, and any privileges conceded to the Jewish subjects of a Christian monarch were by nature transitory.
He must have anticipated that he would not be able to continue this participation as a Jew in a Latin environment, and that the intellectual biculturality enjoyed by the courtierrabbis would not survive the transition to Christian government.
On the Battle of Alcoraz, see R. Still, by the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, only a few Jewish scholars were known to have translated from and into Latin. Never having been a natural, colloquial language among the Jews of al-Andalus, Hebrew was confined to the synagogue and the literary academy, while Arabic was the primary language of secular learning. Beginning in the late twelfth century, Jews mostly immigrants from al-Andalus living in Christian kingdoms began to translate Arabic-language learning into Hebrew.
He recounts the event in his prologue to the Dialogus: Cum itaque divine miserationis instinctu ad tam excelsum huius fidei gradum pervenissem, exui pallium falsitatis et nudatus sum tunica iniquitatis et baptizatus sum in sede Oscensis civitatis in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sanctui, purificatus manibus Stephani, gloriosi et legitimi eiusdem civitatis episcopi. Hora etiam baptismatis preter ea, quae premissa sunt, credidi beatos apostolos et sanctam ecclesiam catholicam.
Hoc autem factum est a nativitate comini anno millesimo centesimo sexto era millesima centesima quadragesima quarta, mense iunio, die natalis apostolorum Petri et Pauli. Unde michi ob venerationem et memoriam eiusdem diei et apostoli nomen, quod est Petrus, michi imposui.
Fuit autem pater meus spiritualis Alfunsus gloriosus Hyspaniae imperator, qui de me sacro fonte suscepit, qua re nomen eius prefato nomini meo apponens, Petrus Alfunsi michi nomen imposui.
In the very moment of baptism, aside from all that I had already promised, I pledged my faith in the holy Apostles and the Holy Catholic Church.
This happened in the year of our Lord, of the [Spanish] era, in the month of June, on the day of the birth of the Apostles Peter and Paul. Whereas, out of veneration and in memory of that day and that apostle, the name, which is Peter, was placed upon me. It was my spiritual father, Alfonso, glorious Emperor of Spain, who took me from the sacred font, for which, adding his name to my previously mentioned one, I took the name Petrus Alfonsi.
The Christian Petrus Alfonsi wasted no time in capitalizing on his new social status. The role of Jews and conversos as intermediaries in medieval Iberian frontier culture is familiar to students of medieval and early modern Spanish literature. Petrus Alfonsi is a unique case in the panorama of Spanish Jews and conversos whose literary output bridged Arabic, Hebrew, and Latin literary culture.
Wait And See - The Wackers - Hot Wacks (CD precedes but shares the historical stage with two groups: the Jewish translators of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and the conversos of the fifteenth and sixteenth. The translators worked alongside their Christian colleagues under the direction of Archbishop Raymond of Toledo late twelfth centurywho sponsored the translation of texts from Arabic into Latin, and under that of Alfonso X the Learned late thirteenth centurywho commissioned texts in Castilian.
As translators, they helped connect Latin readers with Arabic and Hebrew texts, but did not author original works in Latin. Therefore, their individual voices would not reach Christian audiences, and consequently little is known about their lives and characters; they remain shadowy figures, relegated to footnotes.
This crossing enabled him to make his voice heard in the Christian society that had suddenly become his home. On the activity of Jewish Alfonsine translators, see G. Therefore, while by upbringing and education Petrus Alfonsi had a great deal in common with the translators who would later Album) for Archbishop Raymond and Alfonso X, the fact of his conversion to Christianity adds a psycho-social problematic to his work that is absent in that of his former fellow Jews who did not convert.
That is, the religious and political frontiers that he personally crossed are very much present in his text. The Dialogus contra judaeos The Dialogus offers the reader a great deal of insight into the mindset of the man who wrote the Disciplina clericalis, a man whose literary career was made by crossing borders. It is an anti-Judaic polemic in which Petrus Alfonsi attempts to prove the truth of Christianity and the errors of Judaism through rational argumentation.
It is part of a well-represented tradition of polemical texts in Latin which dates to early medieval Christianity. Moysesthe name with which he was born. His interior struggle, inaugurated by his conversion to Christianity, motivates a compelling literary display of conflicted identity in the Dialogus, played out by his two selves in dialogue.
Ad hunc cum pervenisset sermo, quod ego paterna lege relicta, Christianam delegissem fidem, relicto suae stationis loco, ad me festinus pervenit, in ipso adventu quendam vultum ferens hominis indignantis et increpans salutavit me more non amici, sed quasi alieni.
When word had reached him that I had abandoned our paternal law and chosen the Christian faith, he left his usual place, quickly came to me, his face that of an indignant man, and began by greeting me not in the manner of a friend, but as if I were a stranger. Petrus Alfonsi clearly states that he writes the Dialogus in order to justify his conversion. He argues that he was motivated not by material or political gain as one might well suspect of a man whose prospects were ultimately limited by virtue of his being a Jewbut by the undeniable truth of Christian revelation and inconsistency and falsity of Jewish law: Cumque notum esset Iudeis, qui me antea noverant, et probaverant peritum in libris prophetarum et dictis doctarum, partem etiam, licet non magnam, habere omnium liberalium artium, quod legem et fidem accepissem Christianorum et unus essem eorum, quidam eorum arbitrati sunt me hoc non fecisse, nisi quia 29 Luke 11— It should be noted that the medieval Christian understanding of conversion was quite different from that of other religions.
For example, despite the fact that the expansion of Islam depended heavily upon conversion, it was not institutionalized in Islam as it was in Christianity Morrison, Understanding xiv and 5—6. For a more complete personal account of the Jewish-Christian conversion experience in the twelfth century, see the case of Herman-Judah Morrison, Conversion 39— Alii vero proterea me fecisse dicebant, quod non, ut decuerat, prophetarum et legis verba intellexissem.
Alii autem vanae gloriae imputabant et me hoc fecisse calumpniabantur ob honorem seculi, eo quod Christianorum gentem ceteris omnibus superesse conspicerem. Hunc igitur libellum composui, ut omnes et meam cognoscant intentionem et audiant rationem, in quo omnium aliarum gentium credulitatis destructionem proposui, post hec Christianum legem omnibus prestantiorem esse conclusi.
Ad ultimum etiam omnes cuiuslibet Christiane legis adversarii obiectiones posui positasque pro meo sapere cum ratione et auctoritate destruxi. And, as it was known by the Jews who knew me previously and who regarded me as an expert in the books of the Prophets and sayings of the doctors, and in part, albeit not large, of the liberal arts, that I had accepted the law and faith of the Christians and that I had become one of them, some of them thought that I had only done so because at that point I had shed all modesty, for I hated God and his law.
Others said that no, I had done it because I had not understood well the words of the Prophets and the law. Still others attributed it to vainglory, and insulting me by [implying my] worldliness, said that I had seen that the Christian people were surpassing all the others. Therefore, I composed this book, so that all might know my intentions and hear my reasoning, in which all I proposed the destruction of the belief of all other peoples, that they might quickly conclude that the Christian law is superior to all others.
Finally, I also expound all of the objections of any adversary of Christian law, and once expounded, I refuted them according to my knowledge, with reasoning and authorities. The dialogue genre is hardly an innovation on the part of Petrus Alfonsi. It was widely cultivated in Arabic poetry and especially in Arabic philosophical texts by both Jews and Muslims. For an example of its cultivation in eleventh-century writing across the frontier 29 lar in both Latin and the Romance vernaculars during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
By the time Petrus Alfonsi writes his Dialogus, there is already a well-represented tradition of such anti-Jewish polemics in dialogue. That his major innovation in the dialogue genre was the introduction of the auto-dialogue between his Jewish and Christian selves is telling.
One must, therefore, ask the question: why did Petrus Alfonsi cast himself as his own interlocutor, and what does this move mean in the context of his conflicted identity as a converso?
Why put his identity crisis on display? One possible answer is that in making a public display of his inner dialogue he sought to satisfy those skeptics whom he mentions in the prologue of the sincerity of his conversion. Perhaps he felt that his Jewish self would gracefully retire into obscurity after being defeated publicly in a fair fight, just as an imaginary friend might disappear after being convinced he was not real.
We have a clue to this mystery in the decidedly anti-climactic conclusion of the Dialogus. Quod si tu, quod credimus, ipse etiam crederes et baptizari te feceres, eandem Spiritus Sancti illustrationem haberes, ut, quae vera sunt, cognosceres et, quae falsa, respueres.
Nunc autem quoniam super te pietatem habeo, dei misericordiam imploro, ut Spiritus sui plenitudine te illustret et finem meliorem quam principium tibi prestet.
And if you also believed that which we believe and were baptized, you too would have that same illumination from the Holy Spirit, that you might know truth and reject falsehood.
That is, Petrus may be able to argue adeptly for the superiority of Christianity, but the fact of his powers of reasoning being God-given does not make his arguments true. The result is a curious blend of religious intolerance and intellectual cosmopolitanism characteristic of Christian Iberia in the late Middle Ages. His religious border crossing is a conflictive experience in which he is bound to denigrate his former religion in order to be accepted in his new one.
However, his fate as a frontier storyteller is different. While life on the frontier is conflictive when viewed in terms of religion, it is in storytelling that coexistence is more easily mediated, and with rich results. The portrait of Petrus Alfonsi in the Dialogus is that of a man unable to reconcile his past and present selves. However, this same author who seems incapable of integrating his divided self proves much more so in reconciling the storytelling cultures of his past and his present.
Storytelling, including its literary forms, is rooted in popular oral culture, and the tales and fables that make up collections such as the DC owe less to the values of Church, Synagogue, or Mosque than those of home, hearth, and table. Popular narrative crosses linguistic and cultural border more readily than other genres—such as the type of debate found in the Dialogus—that directly reflect institutional religious values.
Although the Disciplina clericalis may have been completely novel to Latin audiences in terms of its narrative structure and its use of sources drawn entirely from the Arabic and Hebrew tradition, it was not at all innovative in the context of Arabic and Hebrew literature.
His most significant achievement with the DC was to introduce Latin readers to a well-established genre of courtly literature from Arabic tradition: adab. On adab literature, see Bonebakker. In short, adab is the forerunner of the secular liberal arts education. By the beginning of the ninth century, adab also came to signify such social graces as the ability to entertain others with verse, amusing anecdotes, and of course, stories Bonebakker At times, what made these anecdotes and tales amusing was their claim to didactic authority.
That is, many of the stories that were counted as adab literature were not intended as serious moral lessons, but as ironically didactic bits of entertaining narrative Jones and Keller On the legitimation of fiction in Classical Arabic literature, see Drory Models 37— Compiling a work of adab in al-Andalus, where it was part of an established tradition, is one thing; introducing such a book in Latin literary culture is another.
His conversion and entry into the newly dominant culture of his time put him in a position not unlike that of the Europeanized native elites of French North Africa or British South Asia.
His thesis is that the culture of a colonized people does not disappear upon their adoption of a colonial culture, but rather engages the colonial culture in a process of transculturation that results in a unique new culture that bears elements of both but that is entirely its own In the s and 80s, the Latin American literary critic Angel Rama used the term to demonstrate how South American authors consciously introduced elements of indigenous culture into their work in order to resist urban and Europeanizing literary values.
More recently, 36 See n. There are, granted, some crucial differences between twentieth-century Latin America and twelfth-century Aragon, hinging on questions of political power and cultural prestige. By contrast, Spanish conquistadores considered the indigenous Americans to be subhuman and barely capable of reason. Therefore, while the mechanism of transculturation as described by Ortiz and Rama is similar in the DC, the terms of engagement are somewhat different.
His effort to frame his work in terms of Christian morality is decidedly pro forma and is largely passive. His work contains no material of specifically Christian provenance and does not illustrate Christian doctrine nor recount miracles of Saints. The only specific references to Christianity are found in the prologue: Vitandum tamen decrevi pro possibilitate sensus mei, ne quid in nostro tractatu inveniatur quod nostrae credulitati sit contrarium vel a nostra fide diversum.
Ad quod adiuvet me omnipotens Deus cui supernitor. To do which may Almighty God to whom I dedicate myself, help me. Of the thirty-odd stories in the collection, there are only three that deal with moral issues, and even these fit equally well within the framework of Islam, Judaism, or Hinduism.
In it, two merchant friends, one from Baghdad and the other from Egypt, demonstrate their loyalty to each other. First, the merchant from Baghdad falls in love with the intended bride of the Egyptian, who surrenders her to his friend in order to save him from a fatal case of lovesickness.
Both tales illustrate the virtue of charity, a value taught by nearly every religious tradition and prominently so in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. When questioned as to his motives, he replies that he had not squandered his fortune, but merely invested it in the world to come. For the exempla in question nos. Petrus Alfonsi is clearly conscious of his role as cultural intermediary and takes steps to emphasize this role in his writing. Well aware of the prestige accorded to Arabic learning in twelfth-century Christian Europe and eager to borrow some of its authority for his own work, he deliberately calls attention to the fact that he compiled the DC from Arabic sources 2; trans.
In fact, he tells the reader, not only does he compile his text from authentically non-Latin sources, he even composed it in another language which we may assume to be Arabic before translating it into Latin. The narrative convention of placing wisdom in the mouth of a father or teacher instructing a son or pupil was common to many forms of wisdom literature, some of which were already known in the West by the appearance of the Disciplina.
Yet the fact that Petrus Alfonsi designates these fathers and teachers as Arabs 2, 3, 7, 9, 26, 31, 33, and 39; trans. This article is the first in a three-part series by the same title, all published in consecutive numbers of Sefarad. Keller and Linker. On Barlaam, see De Haan. Again, while the tale warns that betraying the trust of a traveling companion may backfire and that it is imprudent to judge a person by their appearance, the specific setting is incidental window dressing.
Another example no. Brinner 26— Here again, the choice of setting is incidental and noteworthy only in that it is the sole mention of any specific location in the Latin world, among many such mentions of Eastern locales such as Egypt, Baghdad, and Mecca. The life and work of Petrus Alfonsi remind us that the cultural achievements of convivencia—and by extension of all frontier culture—exact a human price.
Petrus Alfonsi was indeed a remarkable man, if not a unique one in a time and place that was home to so many frontier crossers. In a time of political and cultural upheaval, he was able to preserve his status as an important courtier. Even more, he was able to trade on his conversion to Christianity in order to achieve intellectual celebrity in Latin Europe. He single-handedly introduced Europe to the courtly genre of adab literature, one of the essential hallmarks of an educated man in the Arab world.
Underlying all these successes is a hint of personal pain. In this way, he embodies the conflicts inherent in colonial society and the transculturation characteristic of it.
The DC demonstrates how tales, fables, and anecdotes common to folk narrative, easily travel across linguistic and cultural boundaries. The transculturation and recombination of narrative traditions within its pages are the blueprint for the type of synthesis and fusion that make medieval Iberian narrative unique in Christian Europe during the Middle Ages.
Petrus Alfonsi recontextualizes all of these within a Latin text that is foundational to the Romance-language narrative practice of late medieval Iberia.
His personal experience as a bicultural, polyglot convert made possible important innovations in Latin and Romance narrative that would forever change the way Christian Europeans would tell stories in literature. See Sendebar ed. He is very much the literary grandfather of thirteenth- and fourteenth-century figures such as Alfonso X, Don Juan Manuel, and Juan Ruiz whose work we will discuss in subsequent chaptersa man whose written work tells the story of a life lived across boundaries—religious, political, and cultural.
Though released at the end ofthe album and the singles from it charted in By way of comparison, the number one Billboard h it that year was the cringe-worthy "Tonight's The Night" by Rod Stewart. I know which one I'd rather hear on the radio every five minutes. Sayer's next few albums did well, but by the early to mid 80s he had mostly dropped from sight.
He had a series of financial and legal problems due a larcenous agent and corrupt financial advisers. In a article in The Times of London, Sayer says he lost five million pounds.
However, he continued to record and had chart hits in the UK as recently as In he moved to Australia, and became and Australian citizen in He continues to write and record in his home studio. His latest release from is Album) Selfie. Once again, my apologies to Leo Sayer, but better late than never. Gerry Teekins in One of the many European youths who became enamored with jazz was a year-old Dutch boy by the name of Gerry Teekens. In an interview published inTeekens recalled how in the late s in The Netherlands "Jazz was very popular, even the girls in the street knew big band leader Stan Kenton and saxophone player Lee Konitz.
In earlyTeekens put together a five-week concert tour in the Netherlands. The band had great chemistry, and the tour was a big success, playing to sold-out audiences around the country. Hoping to capture the excellent vibe from the concert tour, Teekens and Raney decided to take the group into a studio to record an album before Raney headed back to the U. The resulting album, Raney '81 rightbecame the first ever release for Teekens' new label, Criss Cross Jazz.
Teekens says he chose the name Criss Cross because it described how jazz and jazz musicians traveled back and forth between the US and Europe - crisscrossing the Atlantic.
And maybe a shout-out to the Thelonious Monk album of the same name? Over a period of nearly 40 years, until his death inTeekens would produce and release more than albums on Criss Cross. Criss Cross Jazz After a few years, Teekens got tired of trying to line up visiting musicians for recording sessions and began to make biannual trips to the US wher e it was much easier to book players for gigs.
For several years, he hired the other Dutch optometrist engineer, Rudy Van Gelder, to record his sessions at his New Jersey studio, churning out an album a day for six or eight days and generating enough material to provide a year's worth of releases for Criss Cross. Then in the late s, in order to save money, Teekens a notorious tightwad began booking studio time in New York City and bringing along Bolleman to engineer the sessions.
Criss Cross Records When I first began to collect Criss Cross LPs, I was struck not only by the fine playing by a lot of cats I had never heard of, but also by the fabulous sound quality. Sam Newsome says that all of the early albums were recorded live direct to two-track, which accounts for the natural, spontaneous feel of the sessions. Unfortunately, only the first 39 titles in the Criss Cross catalog the releases from were issued on vinyl.
AfterCriss Cross releases are CD only. The LPs, by the way, were all pressed in Holland or Germany, and the quality is outstanding. Every disk I have is flat and quiet.
The Jazz Police. How do we feel about Ramsey Lewis? I ask because a few weeks ago I picked up a nice used copy of the release Swingin ' by the Ramsey Lewis Trio. It's an intriguing combination of cool jazz, blues, and classical, played with panache and youthful exuberance.
But hold the phone. ByRamsey Lewis was well into his contemporary jazz pop phase and was no longer playing straight ahead jazz. So what the heck is going on? To date, Ramsey Lewis has recorded more than 80 albums. Nearly anything from the s or 60s is worth picking up. And while I'm not a big fan of 's Sun Goddessit's worth a few bucks just to have the great cover. Flim and the what? Their music is best described as fusion or contemporary jazz, which would normally make me run for the hills.
But these guys are different: They are inventive, technically superb, and seem to always inject a touch of whimsy into their playing. As one reviewer put it, "They're playing is the perfect combination of tight and loose. Jung was a veteran recording engineer and producer, who, along with partner Herb Pilhofer, Album) Sound 80 Studios in the Twin Cities in Bill Berg was the cat called in to play the drums.
None of their catalog has ever appeared on vinyl before, which is why I was so excited to see that Tricycle was being released as a two-disk set cut at 45 RPM. There is no indication of where the disk was pressed, but I suspect it may be MY45, a facility based in Tiefenbach, Germany that specializes in limited, high-quality releases.
Back to our mystery story. What the heck? All well and good, but my real question was how come I never heard of the album or knew that they had released a record before they signed with DMP? And why does Sound 80 Records sound vaguely familiar?
A little sleuthing turned up the answers. According to the liner notes in Tricycle by Flim Johnson, "When 3M techs got tired of listening to oscillator test tones, they would ask us to come down and play some music into their latest box of integrated circuits. Early results were. To test the new 3M digital recording console, it was set to run in parallel to the direct-to-disk recording so that 3M's technicians could compare the digital sound to a state-of-the art analogue pressing.
Apparently everyone was blown away at how much better the digital copy sounded. No doubt it was the first time most of them had ever heard the startling effect of digital's wider dynamic range and vanishingly low signal-to-noise ratio, as well as the absence of any surface or background noise.
So they decided to scrap the direct-to-disk record and release it as a digitally recorded LP. It became the first digital LP ever to win a Grammy award. Next up for the studio was a planned direct-to-disk recording with Flim and the BB's.
Once again, 3M's techs ran the digital recorder in parallel with the analogue recording. And once again the digital copy was judged to sound better than the direct recording and was used to cut the lacquer for the record. Flim Johnson explains why the album became so rare in the liner notes to Tricycle: "I n '78 we actually did a 'direct-to-digital' recording using one of these prototype digital machines. That machine worked quite well, but was soon dismantled, making our master tape obsolete.
No machine could decode that particular code.
Sorrows Child - Nick Cave & The Bad Seeds - The Good Son (CD), Blues Explosion* - Crypt-Style (CD, Album), String Quartet No. 6: Allegro Moderato - Albert Roussel, Bohuslav Martinů, Novák Quartet - Roussel S, Le Bestie Feroci Del Circo - Paolino Paperino Band - Pislas (Vinyl, LP), Έχτιζα Παλάτια - Άντζελα Δημητρίου - Μη Μας Αγαπάς… (CD, Album), As Ilhas Dos Açores - Madredeus - Antologia (CD), Counting The Days - John Mayall - Empty Rooms (Habitaciones Vacias) (Vinyl, LP), Strobe (13) - Radiance (CD), Lisa Stansfield - All Around The World (Vinyl), Click Click - The English Beat* - I Just Cant Stop It (Vinyl, LP, Album), The Lady In My Life - Michael Jackson - Michael Jackson: The King Of Pop (CD, Album)