Cold Fire - Alienation / Stick To It (File, MP3)
Recent comment authors. Notify of. Vote Up 0 Vote Down Reply. Con animations. Thanks leland. I just finished Ironman from the civil war today. Gonna submit it after Deadpool gets published. She displays a careless intimacy with the English language which enables her to play with it.
Her writing is unplanned and spontaneous. She aims at Indian readers more than the western, without any obsession with the East-West conflict. Her English is both simple and natural. Her style is lucid and direct, spontaneous and unpretentious, appropriate and adequate.
She uses English language without distorting it with unseemly translations of words and phrases or coining of new compound words. However, Deshpande regrets her inability at times to express the right emotion in a language alien to the chara te s she eates. Times Literary Supplement showers praise on her creative use of language: Deshpande eschews linguistic pyrotechnics and formal experimentation, but has sufficient command of her tradition to give the lie to the belief that the English language is incapable of expressing any Indian word other than a cosmopolitan one.
Her fictional characters could come from any part of India. Her suave and competent style of writing in English neither betrays her own origin nor gives any indication of the egio al ide tit of the ha a te s she eates. Pu i: I dia writers have now confidently broken free of the chaste British mould where one was expected to ai tai the pu it of Vi to ia E glish. The study of her stories makes clear that she has shown varying degrees of competence in handling the form of the short story and also in realizing suitable verbal structures to portray complex human relationships.
References A. Pathak ed. Middleto MuMetaphoG. Dwivedi, p. Bala a a Gupta. Quoted f o P a ita Bose, E glishia a, A o e? Deccan Chronicle, 13 Aug, Karthikeyan Introduction The American Social novelists differed increasingly in the decades of the twentieth century. They depicted a different society with new social and political attitudes. They had a tendency to present either a small businessman as hero or a villain with all kinds of economic and social pressures or a minor employee of a large organization nominally a free individual, subtly shaped and conditioned by the circumstances of his job.
The fullest exploration and documentation of the transition appeared in the novels of Dos Passos. Dos Passos, the most considerable figure in contemporary American literature, presents the evils of contemporary American Society in his novels.
He plays the role of a social historian in this regard. The characters of his novels have no inner life commensurate with the outer world. Unlike the other writers of his time, Dos Passos invents a new form by which he is able to present his agony in a powerful manner. His family background has an impact on his literary career. As a journalist, he is able to observe the society, and creates characters with a critical mind in his novels. He depicts the American life of the period after the World War I.
American social novelists have been especially concerned with the development of bureaucracy and institutionalism. The implications of this development for the individual and for society as a whole. It is a development which has profoundly affected the world of business.
It has every area of the nation life. For earlier social novelists, the business theme as ot si pl a aila le ut al ost i es apa le. A e i a ite s, ith thei e t e e self- consciousness about their society, have been haunted by the archetypal figure of the A e i a -as- usi ess aa d ha e ofte falle i to the istake of ega di g the American businessman as an entirely unprecedented and extraordinary phenomenon.
For what is so significant about he is a direct link between the postwar decade and the crisis novel of the Depression period, the defeatism of the lost generation has been slowly and subtly transferred by him from persons to society itself. It is society that becomes the hero of his work, society that suffers the anguish and impending sense of damnation that the lost generation individualists had suffered alone before.
The lost generation becomes all the lost generation from the beginning of modern time in America. All who have known themselves to be lost in the fire of war or struggling up the icy slopes of ode apitalis. Dos Passos wrote more than forty books during his lifetime, including poetry, plays, travel books, political tracts, histories, and biographies. I have limited the documentation of his critical reception to the novels.
Also he is best known for, and to those others which are representative of a period in his career or of a change in political or stylistic direction. Though it is certainly true that no American writer has been more subjected to political judgment than Dos Passos, has the history of the critical response shows that what made him the most promising American writer of the thirties and a much less respected writer.
Later on, he had as much to do with his art as with his politics, if indeed the two can be separated. A critical reception never stops developing, and neither does historical consciousness ever fully reveal itself in openly stated principles or propositions. Dos Passos asserts that personal freedom and individual liberty constitute the highest good, and that this good is under attack by evil in the form of institutional authority i ass so iet a d i the fo of the p es iptio s of do t i e.
Fi allthe theo asse ts that the i di idual ust st uggle agai st opp essioagai st the dail e ploitatio of e e thi g take the leap of faith. Dos Passos, the ost o side a le figu e i o te po a American Literature, presents the evils of contemporary American society in his novels. The trilogy stands as his most forceful presentation of his central concerns: the failure of the American dream, the exploitation of the working class, the loss of individual f eedo a d A e i a s e phasis o ate ialis.
I all his o ks the institution or the aggregation is the enemy, bigness is evil, and the destruction or erosion of individual integrity and dignity is tragic. This is seen to be the fate of everyman in a modern urban industrial society. His Cold Fire - Alienation / Stick To It (File for the need to save the individual from corrupt society. Dos Passos first began to use the experimental techniques he would develop more fully in his major contribution to American fiction, the U.
His characters are again representations of several American social orders and the themes of the novel are typical of Dos Passos s o k alie atiolo eli ess, f ust atioa d loss of i di idualit. Dos Passos deals with the loathsome life led by Americans because of commercialism, industrialism and World War I.
His anxiety to change the dominance of capitalism is revealed in his novels. The characters move in the old, ill—planned rusting cities or those that are new and glittering.
He hates the wreckers who treat men as if they are machines, the speculators and the rich who live only to consume. It is the emptiness of society and culture as revealed through individual lives in the wasteland of the twentieth century.
He suggested four major flaws in people who are the products of the twentieth century urban society: i a primary interest in self and a lack of concern for others, ii materialism, iii shallowness and hypocrisy, iv cynicism. It is the result, in this country, of a failure in democratic planning, he represented by the New Deal, which threatened the survival of human responsibility and individualism.
The Camera Eye is a se ies of i p essio isti ie s of Dos Passos s life. Dos Passos centers on the inviolability of the individual and his importance.
Almost all his characters taken from life had restless, baffled life and there were labor struggles. Socialism, war and the personal sense of futility that expresses itself in whoring, violent drinking and the aimless moving on of Americans that convey the extravagant of the o te t. The o s e it of a e a e Dos Passos s the e i his o els si e ar was the most important political events of the century.
Three soldiers was widely praised for realistic exposure of army life or condemned as a desecration of the recent American war effort. Dos Passos portrays the disillusionment and dehumanization resulting from the war. Three soldiers was the first of the significant o els to o e f o a A e i a ite s e pe ie es du i g Wo ld Wa I. Dos Passos s reputation really was established with his novel of post-war disillusion. It describes the ordinary soldier trapped in the army machine, one of the instruments of the state grown healthy in war.
We find the theme of bigness, bigness in which the individual is lost, developed as a cause of disillusion. Three soldiers were the first important American novel, and one of the first in any languages, to treat the war in the tone of realism and disillusion.
It made a deep impression, and may be counted the beginning of strictly contemporary fiction in the United States. The Camera Eye sections make the transition from the to the It is emphasizing the bankruptcy of capitalism and the onset of the depression. His o e as less ith ideolog tha ith the individual and the forces that hampered the development of individuality.
Dos Passos has thus portrayed the beginning of the new century as in truth on ending. A native tradition of open and courageous struggle for freedom of belief and action is under attack, usually successful attack, by middle class American society. They can also serve as a powerful weapon of the satiric ironist who is armed with a compelling vision of an America in which the old words are used truthfully to help create the fulfillment of the American dream of freedom and opportunity for all Americans.
Dos Passos has chronicled the social, political and economic history of this nation from the turn of the century to the present day. Dos Passos looking back from the defeats of the twenties, to chart the falling line of those hopes, and the mood of his books, bitter, pessimistic, and disillusioned.
Dos Passos to believe that the moral state of the middle class was most unhappy. But he was too perceptive to neglect examination of radical as well as conservative society and private as Cold Fire - Alienation / Stick To It (File as public life.
It portrays, among other human experiences, the evil of abusing men for private or political ends, the vanity of separating, art or meaningful life from the needs of fellow men, and the costs and consolations of individual integrity.
Probably this fiction deserves our attention, in any case, for the novel which deals with topical political matters has not had an illustrious history in the United States. Between andDos Passos experienced an intensification of his radicalism with the one set of the depression, and later, growing pessimism and disillusionment with the Co u ist pa t that led hi to sea h A e i a s past fo a ia le adi al t aditio.
Dos Passos wrote about in his nonfiction: poverty, unemployment, political, repression, imperialism and the degrading mechanization of work. We see the destructive effects of values and the psychological damage done to both the rich and the poor by great disparities of wealth. Conclusion After Dos Passos continued to travel, as a war correspondent and as a tourist, to write social and political analyses, to publish fiction, and to become involved in Cold Fire - Alienation / Stick To It (File research.
Dos Passos is not simply an authentic member of the lost generation but a writer who has been as eloquent as any in our time in expressing what it means to lose and be lost. Eventually, critical opinion viewed him as an arch conservative, a traitor to his earlier liberal ideals. He always insisted that his main focus remained a concern for individual freedom. In America, twentieth century opened with new hopes and desires.
It was a progressive era with the growth of labor power, reform in municipal politics, regulations in the giant trusts and dreams for an end to the plunders to the national resources. A new national pride enthroned the heads of America through science and technology.
Dos Passos s e pe ie e as a jou alist pla ed a ital ole i e posi g hi to the ast a ges of human activities. He expressed his ambivalent attitude towards industrialization that came to dominate among the masses to such a great extent during the first three decades of twentieth century.
Unfortunately, during the first decade of the twentieth century, commercial spirit was rampant everywhere. The inherent conflict between religion and science emerged. The gap between technical capacities of science reason and the moral comprehension religion was there and the social wisdom of the people broadened not allowing the mass to come to a solution. Thus parallel line falls between the two, never hoping to join.
The next transition came by the sudden arrival of war. The impact of unprecedented events caused by the war shattered the spirituality among the mass.
A new literature which challenged the traditional expectations of both form and content through novel. Dos Passos wanted to remain independent, something of the anarchist, in his works supporting individual freedoms against bureaucracies wherever he saw them, while portraying the swirl of life in his chosen country. Granting Dos Passos his political perspectives, the reader can get from his works a remarkably broad chronicle of the twentieth-century United States. References: Beach, Joseph Warren.
American Fiction: New York: Macmillan, Bloom, Harold. American Fiction - New York: Chelesea House Publishers, Hook, A d e. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, New York: Dutton, Sartre, Jean-Paul. Literary and Philosophical Essays. London: Rider, Thorp, Willard. American Writing in the Twentieth Century. Massachusetts: Harvard UP, S This paper looks into three aspects: first, it focuses on films as a main form of cultural production; second, looks into the state of widows in India through films which have portrayed widowhood and third, how the characters who are widows attempt to break the barriers of widowhood in the films by looking at the Bollywood and Sandalwood films.
To egi ith, it is i po ta t to sa that, I dia is the o ld s la gest fil p odu i g nation with films being produced every year. People enjoy watching films, either in the cinema hall or on a television as a source of entertainment. But cinema is no more a mere source of entertainment. It has become a field in popular culture where dominant ideologies are circulated, stereotypes are framed and various discourses are projected and it is one of the forms of cultural production. Both male and female audiences have been affected by these political messages, societal issues and gender identities that are represented in the films.
An ideological state apparatuses which is mainly physical force consists of government, army, police, law, courts, and prisons. For ideological State Apparatuses Through these medium the state imposes its ideological power on society to adopt false consciousness, encourages society to admit and identify the false images which are perpetuated and reinforced on the people. Moving on to the aspect of widowhood and its portrayal in the selected movies White Rainbow, Water, Prem Rog, Naye Neralu, Phaniyammawe can say with the support of Perrie Bourdieu that in every society, a particular group occupies a dominant position with symbolic power which it gains because of the social affiliations of belonging to the dominant class.
This symbolic power gives a particular group wa kind of authority to decide the norms. These norms takes up the forms of discourse as Foucault quotes to control the individual. To connect to the present paper, the concept of Sati system was mainly followed by the Rajputs who were considered to belong to the upper class. Even in the select movies, it can be seen that the people who cling to the religious norms of widowhood belong to the upper class.
Well, ut e fail to uestio hat has e ai ed and what is the state of widows even today. Even to this day, many widows are stripped of all colour and allowed to only wear white. Their hair is shaved and they are told to give up all adornment such as jewellery and makeup.
They are expected to give up spicy food and sweets. Worst of all, many are abandoned and shunned by their families because it is believed it was the woman's "bad karma" that caused the death of her husband. She is denied every form of dignity that she knew as a wife and mother.
In India, widows are considered to be unlucky and there are many demoralizing customs associated with widowhood. Due to this poor treatment, many widows either flock to or are abandoned in the ancient holy cities of Vrindavan and Varanasi where they are told that Lord Krishna will take care of them.
Since there are so many widows in Vrindavan, it has come to be known as the City of Widows. The portrayal of this pathetic situation has been projected in The White Rainbow by Dharan Mandrayar. It narrates the story of four remarkable women and their struggle to overcome the stigma and brutal reality of widowhood in modern Indian society. In the story, the protagonist Priya, is an educated, affluent young woman who is tragically widowed. Despondent, alone and desperate, she seeks unlikely solace in Vrindavan, the "city of widows.
She encounters gentle Mala tragically disfigured by her mother-in-law and young Deepti, forced into servitude and an underground sex trade run by the Panda priest. Together, this disparate group forms a deep bond and begin to see the power of their own conviction to take charge of their own fate.
But, their journey is not without adversity and tragedy from a system dominated by men who prosper from the exploitation of India's most disenfranchised citizens. In the end, Priya comes to realize that, "Her destiny was to change their fate! On the other hand the Kannada movie, Nayi Neralu directed by Girish Kasaravalli projects a character by name Venkataklakshmi, a widow, who lives with her in-laws Acchanniah and his wife.
Being a widow, she is forced to shave her head and this has been shown by the director several times in the movie. Acchanniah learns from a friend that a boy in a distant village claims that he was the son of Acchanniah in his previous birth and has been incarnated as Viswas. Achannaiah dismisses the information as baseless but, his wife strongly believes that he is her son and forces Acchanniah to get him home. Acchannaih's wife realises a new purpose in living and accepts this stranger as her son.
But it is Venkatalakshmi, who finds it difficult to accept some stranger as her long lost husband. After some initial resistance, Venkatalakshmi realises that this is indeed an opportunity to attain all that she is restrained from.
Her desires emerge again and she accepts the boy as he hus a d. The so iet hi h fo ed he to elie e its her husband does not approve of Venkatalakshmi accepting the man as her husband and living with him.
Rajalakshmi swears that this stranger who is her age is not her father. Acchanniah and his wife Nagalakshmi are shocked to hear that Venkatalakshmi is pregnant with Vishwa's child. Matter complicate and Acchanniah is humiliated in the public by his fellow Brahmins. Venkatalakshmi sensing the intensity of the situation decides to leave the village and live in a god-forsaken place with Vishwa.
She has a hard life trying to manage ends meet. To worsen things, Vishwa is attracted to Sukri, a girl from the worker class. Nagalakshmi dies unable to digest these bizarre happenings. Rajalakshmi decides to seek the help of the court to get her mother back. They file a false complaint on Vishwa. Aware of the family's sinister motives, Vishwa refuses to return to Venkatalakshmi. Meanwhile, a daughter is born to Venkatalakshmi.
The court announces Vishwa guilty and he is sent to two years rigorous imprisonment. But Venkatalakshmi declares that she would wait for Vishwa to be released although she is certain that he will not return to her. She tells her daughter that she never believed that Vishwa was her husband reincarnated. The character of Venkatalakshmi emerges as a very strong individual towards the end of the film. She tells her father in law that she has lived her entire life doing things which others say and that she has decided to live the way she wants to.
The final scene shows Venkatalakshmi standing on the banks with her child in hand looking at her daughter and father in law leave in a boat thus proving to have crossed the barriers of widowhood twice in the movie: once, when she takes the advantage of the force done to her by her in-laws to marry Viswas and the second when she leaves behind her in-laws and decide to move out and wait for Viswas to return.
Yet another movie Water by Deepa Mehta shows how social oppression operates in different ways. The entire movie is seen through the eyes of a eight year old child Chu ia, ho is a idoho is du ped i a ido s ho e he he aged hus a d passes away.
At the ashram she shares her space with widows of various shades and colours: the obese Madhumathi who is like a keeper of the brothel, younger Shakunthala, a strong but silent sufferer aware of the injustice in their lives but unable to Cold Fire - Alienation / Stick To It (File anything; young and beautiful Kalyani who is barely out of her teens and is treated differently by the warden. Kalyani is allowed not to shave her head off and also receives gifts occasionally as she earns the livelihood for the ashram through prostitution.
In her encounter with Narayan, who is steeped in Gandhian philosophy, dreams of getting married and moving away from the ashram. She tries to cross the line of taboo and faces many odds in the society but finally walks out of the ashram with Narayan to have a new beginning.
To make things worse, she discovers that her saviour is the son of the rich landlords whom she offered her services too. Kal a i i despai puts a e d to he life.
The oid eated Kal a i s death is filled he another ashram mate Chuyia. She becomes a victim of the lustful old man. Shakunthalarescues Chuyia and sends her away in the train with Narayan.
Here, train symbolises modernity. A similar character like Shakunthala can be seen in a Kannada movie Phaniyamma directed by Mrs. Prema Karanth in with the character Phaniyamma, a widow at the age of nine and continues living as a widow till the age of Phaniyamma is similar to the character os Shakunthala in a way that she does not protest for the inhuman treatment that is given to her but protects and fights for a 16 year old widow Dakshayini, when she is being take to sha e he head off.
The fil is ased o M. It narrates the story of a relative of the author. The movie starts with the birth of Phaniyamma in in a village in Malenadu, the region in interior Karnataka. It was a big joint family; there was no count of how many people lived in the house. At her birth it was said that Phaniyamma would live a long and fulfilled life, would bear many sons.
There was one mistake in the horoscope that was cast at the birth. The birth time was not noted properly by the old man who had sat for hours waiting at the door of the delivery room. He had dozed off, and did not notice that the cup of water he used to keep track of time had got emptied. Phaniyamma grew up in the big family, learnt all the things that a young girl was supposed to learn. When she was nine years old, she was married off to fifteen year old Nanjunda.
Just a few months later, Nanjunda died, bitten by a cobra. The couple had met only during their wedding. Most probably they had not even dared to look at one another at that time. Phaniyamma had become a widow and had to pay for it for the rest of her life. The first things that were done to her was to break the glass bangles that she was wearing, to tear off the mangalya the special chain a woman wears as a sign of being marriedto wipe off the kumkum on her forehead.
From then on she had to wear only white saris, and could eat only once a day. Phaniyamma's head was shaved off on the fourth day after she started menstruating.
The people around her made sure that she looked as ugly as she could. They made sure that all desires that could arise in her were nipped before they even became buds. Phaniyamma lived for years, spending her life in one or the other relative's house. She was shown love and affection by all the members of her family. She was respected, perhaps because she always held a helping hand to everyone.
She never talked badly of any body, never hurt anybody. Cold Fire - Alienation / Stick To It (File she had accepted that she had no right to show - or to have- any desire, any ambition, any worldly thought. Still she did what she could to right the wrong in the society. It was as if her doing the right things - like saving a girl of the untouchable caste from a difficult delivery, like trying to prevent the shaving off the head of 16 year old Dakshayini when she became a widow.
This is a sign where Phaniyamma is seen to atone for the wrongs done to her. She just behaved in what she considered to be the human way. In yet another movie, Prem Rog directed by Raj Kapoor shows how the people of the upper class dominate in the society by circulating illogical traditional customs relating to caste, religion and culture and makes the life of widows miserable.
The film narrates the story of Manorama, a girl born in a rich Takur family who is being married to a rich and handsome Thakur. Her elder brother-in-law rapes her which leads to her return to her pa e t s house. It is De dhaa o pha a d ho had deep f ie dship ith Ma o a a i their childhood, de ides to e uild Ma o a a s lost life a k.
Ma o a a i itiall is elu ta t but Devdhar being strong enough opposes all norms of the all system against widows and e i es Ma o a a s lost faith i life a d lo e. Ma o a a is fi all see to eak the arriers of widowhood and marries Devdhar. India is known as the land of vast natural beauty, ancient tradition and beguiling intrigue, great religious texts. Today known as Modern India, a nation where a highly-skilled and highly-technical environment.
But have we forgotten with a larger provincial population that is steeped in tradition, superstition and religious dogma. Have we forgotten that the so- called great religious texts dictate the norms to every walks of life and makes the life of widows miserable. Well widows!!!! Who are they? The ones who have been married at the age of 8- he the do t k o the ea i g of hus a d?
The o es ho do t k o h the a e ade to ea hite saree ad eat only once? Widows in India are considered to be the most marginalised people who face a future that offers virtually no hope. They have been ostracized by society, detached from their families, economically deprived and reduced to non-entities by tradition. I would say that, widows are trebly oppressed. One, because she belongs to a particular group of people who strictly follow the religious norms, second, because she is a woman and third, because she is a widow who is considered to have committed a sin which has resulted in the death of her husband.
Its well said by Mother Theresa: "The greatest disease and the greatest suffering is to be unwanted, unloved, uncared for, to be shunned by everybody, to be just nobody" I slept and dreamed that life was all joy. I woke and saw that life was but service. I served and understood that service was joy. Why India? Why White Rainbow? Each day thousands of people come to worship in the over temples in the city.
Widows can survive by chanting in the ashrams 4 hours in the morning and 4 hours in the evening. They literally "sing for their supper". The widows lives revolve around chanting all day, seeking shelter, and waiting to die, praying that their next life will be better.
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