Introduction - Various - Hits Of The USA (Vinyl, LP)
To compete with the LP, boxed album sets of 45s were issued, along with EP extended play 45s, which squeezed two or even three selections onto each side.
Despite intense marketing efforts by RCA Victor, the 45 ultimately succeeded only in replacing the 78 as the preferred format for singles. The "last hurrah" for the 78 rpm record in the US was the microgroove 78 series pressed for the Audiophile label Ewing Nunn, Saukville, Wis. This series was labeled AP-1 through about AP, pressed on grainless red vinyl. Today AP-1 through AP-5 are very scarce. By very tightly packing the fine groove, a playing time of 17 minutes per side was achieved.
Reel-to-reel magnetic tape recorders posed a new challenge to the LP in the s, but the higher cost of pre-recorded tapes was one of several factors that confined tape to a niche market. Cartridge and cassette tapes were more convenient and less expensive than reel-to-reel tapes, and they became popular for use in automobiles beginning in the mids. However, the LP was not seriously challenged as the primary medium for listening to recorded music at home until the s, when the audio quality of the cassette was greatly improved by better tape formulations and noise-reduction systems.
Bycassettes were outselling LPs in the US. The Compact Disc CD was introduced in It offered a recording that was, theoretically, completely noiseless and not audibly degraded by repeated playing or slight scuffs and scratches.
At first, the much higher prices of CDs and CD players limited their target market to affluent early adopters and audiophiles ; but prices came down, and by CDs outsold LPs. The CD became the top-selling format, over cassettes, in Along with phonograph records in other formats, some of which were made of other materials, LPs are now widely referred to simply as "vinyl".
Since the late s there has been a vinyl revival. Soundtracks — played on records synchronized to movie projectors in theatres — could not fit onto the mere five minutes per side that 78s offered.
When initially introduced, inch LPs played for a maximum of about 23 minutes per side, inch records for around It wasn't until "microgroove" was developed by Columbia Records in that Long Players LPs reached their maximum playtime, which has continued to modern times. Economics and tastes initially determined which LP) of music was available on each format. Recording company executives believed upscale classical music fans would be eager to hear a Beethoven symphony or a Mozart concerto without having to flip over multiple, four-minute-per-side 78s, and that pop music fans, who were used to listening to one song at a time, would find the shorter time of the inch LP sufficient.
As a result, the inch format was reserved solely for higher-priced classical recordings and Broadway shows. Popular music continued to appear only on inch records. Their beliefs were wrong. By the mids, the inch LP, like its similarly sized 78 rpm cousin, would lose the format war and be discontinued. Ten-inch records briefly reappeared as mini-LPs in the late s and early s in the United States and Australia as a marketing alternative.
InColumbia Records introduced "extended-play" LPs that played for as long as 52 minutes, or 26 minutes per side. The minute playing time remained rare, however, because of mastering limitations, and most LPs continued to be issued with a to minute playing time. A small number of albums exceeded the minute limit. These records had to be cut with much narrower spacing between the grooves, which allowed for a smaller dynamic range on the records, and meant that playing the record with a worn needle could damage the record.
It also resulted in a much quieter sound with increased surface noise. Spoken word and comedy albums require a smaller dynamic range compared to musical records. Therefore, they can be cut with narrower spaces between the grooves.
The Comic Stripreleased by Springtime Records inhas a side A lasting 38 min 4 s, and a side B lasting 31 min 8 s, for a total of 69 min 12 s. Turntables called record changers could play records stacked vertically on a spindle. This arrangement encouraged the production of multiple-record sets in automatic sequence. A two-record set had Side 1 and Side 4 on one record, and Side 2 and Side 3 on the other, so the first two sides could play in a changer without the listener's intervention.
Then the stack was flipped over. Larger boxed sets used appropriate automatic sequencing 1—8, 2—7, 3—6, 4—5 to allow continuous playback, but this created difficulties when searching for an individual track.
Vinyl records are vulnerable to dust, heat warping, scuffs, and scratches. Dust in LP) groove is usually heard as noise and may be ground into the vinyl by the passing stylus, causing lasting damage.
A warp can cause a regular "wow" or fluctuation of musical pitch, and if substantial it can make a record physically unplayable. A scuff will be heard as a swishing sound.
A scratch will create an audible tick or pop once each revolution when the stylus encounters it. A deep scratch can throw the stylus out of the groove; if it jumps to a place farther inward, part of the recording is skipped; if it jumps outward to a part of the groove it just finished playing, it can get stuck in an infinite loopplaying the same bit over and over until someone stops it.
This last type of mishap, which in the era of brittle shellac records was more commonly caused by a crack, spawned the simile "like a broken record" to refer to annoying and seemingly endless repetition. Records used in radio stations can suffer cue burnwhich results from disc jockeys placing the needle at the beginning of a track, turning the record back and forth to find the exact start of the music, then backing up about a quarter turn, so that when it is released the music will start immediately after the fraction of a second needed for the disc to come up to full speed.
When this is done repeatedly, the affected part of the groove is heavily worn and a hissing sound will be noticeable at the start of the track. The process of playing a vinyl record with a stylus is by its very nature to some degree a destructive process.
Wear to either the stylus or the vinyl results in diminished sound quality. Record wear can be reduced to virtual insignificance, however, by the use of a high-quality, correctly adjusted turntable and tonearm, a high-compliance magnetic cartridge with a high-end stylus in good condition, and careful record handling, with non-abrasive removal of dust before playing and other cleaning if necessary. The average LP has about 1, feet m; 0. The average tangential needle speed relative to the disc surface is approximately 1 mile per hour 1.
It travels fastest on the outside edge, unlike audio CDs, which change their speed of rotation to provide constant linear velocity CLV. By contrast, CDs play from the inner radius outward, the reverse of phonograph records.
The cutting stylus unavoidably transferred some of the subsequent groove wall's impulse signal into the previous groove wall. Radio transcription producers such as World Broadcasting System and Associated Music Publishers AMP were the dominant licensees of the Western Electric wide range system and towards the end of the s were responsible for two-thirds of the total radio transcription business.
Developmentally, much of the technology of the long playing record, successfully released by Columbia incame from wide range radio transcription practices. The use of vinyl pressings, increased length of programming, and general improvement in audio quality over 78 rpm records were the major selling points.
Goldmark, Rene' Snepvangers and William S. Bachman in made it possible for a great variety of record companies to get into the business of making long playing records. The LP record for longer works, 45 rpm for pop music, and FM radio became high fidelity program sources in demand.
Radio listeners heard recordings broadcast and this in turn generated more record sales. The industry flourished. Technology used in making recordings also developed and prospered. There were ten major evolutionary steps that improved LP production and quality during a period of approximately forty years.
At the time of the introduction of the compact disc CD inthe stereo LP pressed in vinyl was at the high point of its development. Still, it continued to suffer from a variety of limitations:. Audiophiles have differed over the relative merits of the LP versus the CD since the digital disc was introduced.
Modern anti-aliasing filters and oversampling systems used in digital recordings have eliminated perceived problems observed with very early CD players. There is a theory that vinyl records can audibly represent higher frequencies than compact discs, though most of this is noise and not relevant to human hearing. According to Red Book specificationsthe compact disc has a frequency response of 20 Hz up to 22, Hz, and most CD players measure flat within a fraction of a decibel from at least 0 Hz to 20 kHz at full output.
Due to the distance required between grooves, it is not possible for an LP to reproduce as low frequencies as a CD. Additionally, turntable rumble and acoustic feedback obscures the low-end limit of vinyl but the upper end can be, with some cartridges, reasonably flat within a few decibels to 30 kHz, with gentle roll-off. Carrier signals of Quad LPs popular in the s were at 30 kHz to be out of the range of human hearing. The average human auditory system is sensitive to frequencies from 20 Hz to a maximum of around 20, Hz.
High frequency sensitivity decreases as a person ages, a process called presbycusis. For the first several decades of disc record manufacturing, sound was recorded directly on to the "master disc" at the recording studio. From about on earlier for some large record companies, later for some small ones it became usual to have the performance first recorded on audio tapewhich could then be processed or edited, and then dubbed on to the master disc.
A record cutter would engrave the grooves into the master disc. Early versions of these master discs were soft waxand later a harder lacquer was used. The mastering process was originally something of an art as the operator had to manually allow for the changes in sound which affected how wide the space for the groove needed to be on each rotation.
As the playing of gramophone records causes gradual degradation of the recording, they are best preserved by transferring them onto other media and playing the records as rarely as possible.
They need to be stored on edge, and do best under environmental conditions that most humans would find comfortable. Where old disc recordings are considered to be of artistic or historic interest, from before the era of tape or where no tape master exists, archivists play back the disc on suitable equipment and record the result, typically onto a digital format, which can be copied and manipulated to remove analog flaws without any further damage to the source recording.
For example, Nimbus Records uses a specially built horn record player  to transfer 78s. Anyone can Introduction - Various - Hits Of The USA (Vinyl this using a standard record player with a suitable pickup, a phono-preamp pre-amplifier and a typical personal computer. However, for accurate transfer, professional archivists carefully choose the correct stylus shape and diameter, tracking weight, equalisation curve and other playback parameters and use high-quality analogue-to-digital converters.
As an alternative to playback with a stylus, a recording can be read optically, processed with software that calculates the velocity that the stylus would be moving in the mapped grooves and converted to a digital recording format.
This does no further damage to the disc and generally produces a better sound than normal playback. This technique also has the potential to allow for reconstruction of broken or otherwise damaged discs.
Groove recordings, first designed in the final quarter of the 19th century, held a predominant position for nearly a century—withstanding competition from reel-to-reel tapethe 8-track cartridgeand the compact cassette. The widespread popularity of Sony's Walkman was a factor that contributed to the vinyl's lessening usage in the s.
Vinyl records experienced a sudden decline in popularity between and when the major label distributors restricted their return policies, which retailers had been relying on to maintain and swap out stocks of relatively unpopular titles.
First the distributors began charging retailers more for new product if they returned unsold vinyl, and then they stopped providing any credit at all for returns.
Retailers, fearing they would be stuck with anything they ordered, only ordered proven, popular titles that they knew would sell, and devoted more shelf space to CDs and cassettes. Record companies also deleted many vinyl titles from production and distribution, further undermining the availability of the format and leading to the closure of pressing plants.
This rapid decline in the availability of records accelerated the format's decline in popularity, and is seen by some as a deliberate ploy to make consumers switch to CDs, which unlike today, were more profitable for the record companies.
In spite of their flaws, such as the lack of portability, records still have enthusiastic supporters. Vinyl records LP) to be manufactured and sold today,  especially by independent rock bands and labels, although record sales are considered to be a niche market composed of audiophilescollectorsand DJs. Old records and out-of-print recordings in particular are in much demand by collectors the world over.
See Record collecting. Many popular new albums are given releases on vinyl records and older albums are also given reissues, sometimes on audiophile-grade vinyl. In the United Kingdom, the popularity of indie rock caused sales of new vinyl records particularly 7 inch singles to increase significantly in  briefly reversing the downward trend seen during the s.
In the United States, annual vinyl sales increased by Many electronic dance music and hip hop releases today are still preferred on vinyl; however, digital copies are still widely available.
This is because for disc jockeys "DJs"vinyl has an advantage over the CD: direct manipulation of the medium. DJ techniques such as slip-cueingbeatmatchingand scratching originated on turntables. With CDs or compact audio cassettes one normally has only indirect manipulation options, e. With a record one can place the stylus a few grooves farther in or out, accelerate or decelerate the turntable, or even reverse its direction, provided the stylus, record playerand record itself are built to withstand it.
Figures released in the United States in early showed that sales of vinyl albums nearly doubled inwith 1. Sales have continued to rise into the s, with around 2. InTaylor Swift soldcopies of her ninth studio album Evermore on vinyl. The sales of the record beat the largest sales in one week on vinyl since Nielsen started tracking vinyl sales in The sales record was previously held by Jack White who sold 40, copies of his second solo release, Lazarettoon vinyl in Inthe sale of vinyl records was the only physical music medium with increasing sales with relation to the previous year.
Sales of other mediums including individual digital tracks, digital albums and compact discs have fallen, the last having the greatest drop-in-sales rate. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. According to the RIAA 's midyear report inphonograph record revenues surpassed those of CDs for the first time since the s.
VinylVideo is a format to store a low resolution black and white video on a vinyl record alongside encoded audio.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Gramophone record. For the magazine, see Phonograph Record magazine. Disc-shaped vinyl analog sound storage medium. Play media. Video of a spring-motor-driven 78 rpm acoustic non-electronic gramophone playing a shellac record.
See also: LP record. Further information: High fidelity. LP) article: Laser turntable. See also: Comparison of recording media. Main article: Unusual types of gramophone records.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. For other uses, see Broken Record disambiguation. Further information: Analog recording vs. Further information: Production of phonograph records. See also: Vinyl revival. This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
April Archived at the Wayback Machine. Kitchener — Waterloo Record — Kitchener, Ont. Archived from the original on Wired UK. Retrieved Metrication Matters. Information Week. The New York Times. The talking phonograph. Scientific American, 14 December, LIFE : 87— Music Educators JournalVol. The Recording and Reproduction of Sound revised and enlarged 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Howard W. London: British Library. Archived PDF from the original on The New York TimesFebruary 23,p. Archived at the Wayback Machine Front page.
All 8-inch discs have such stamps on them. Cambridge University Press. University Press of Florida. ISBN Peyton's Big Damn Band".
Oxford University Press. Walker Spalding, Lincolnshire: The Authors. London: The British Library. Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation. ISSN New York: Billboard Publishing Co. Sound recording: the life story of a technology. Greenwood technographies. JHU Press.
Audio signal processing and coding. American record guidep. This compander exists in two identically named but slightly different versions; only one of them has a dedicated "Disk" setting, the other one instead has an additional setting to combine subsonic with MPX filtering.
In this model, High-Com II encoded vinyl disks have to be played back through the "Rec" setting of a connected tape deck. Bizet Carmen prelude  2. Rimsky-Korsakov Procession of the Nobles from Mlada  3. Brahms Hungarian Dance No. Sextet Sherman Martin Austin : 1. Impressions John Coltrane  2. Mimosa Dennis Irwin  3. Little B's Poem Bobby Hutcherson  4. The result is High-Com IIthe world's finest two-band noise-reduction system.
There is no residual hiss ; the ticks, pops, and crackles that mar conventional discs are absent. So is turntable rumble. The loud passages emerge with unprecedented clarity since they need not be recorded at so high and distortion-producing a level.
This common fault of noise-reduction systems has been eliminated in High-Com II. Listen also to High-Com II's remarkable ability to accurately preserve musical transients. They are neither muted nor exaggerated nor edgy as with other companders. This accuracy of reproduction—on all types of music, at all frequencies, and at all levels—is what distinguishes High-Com II from other noise-reduction systems.
Low-level signals are processed for maximum noise reduction, high-level ones for minimum distortion. This sophisticated technique assumes maximum dynamic range with minimum "breathing" and other audible side effects. LP) without breathing, pumping, or other ill side effects. Includes a description of the UC compander system. Written at Dresden, Germany. According to the author he later also developed an improved version utilizing more modern ICs.
Lexikon Imprint Verlag. Die Expansion erfolgt spiegelverkehrt. Vermutlich aus diesem Grund hat man auf eine weithin sichtbare Kennzeichnung der mit diesem Verfahren aufgenommenen Platten verzichtet. Bis dahin gibt es aber noch eine Schwierigkeit. Also shows a picture of the "U" engraving in the silent inner groove indicating UC encoded vinyl disks.
Aardvark Mastering. The Vinyl Factory. The Talking Machine Review International. Ernie Bayly, Bournemouth 38 : — Record Industry Association of America Inc. The Record Collectors Guild. Accessed January 26, It's been said to be less noisy, which really has more to do with the grade of vinyl.
The Audiophiliac takes on that myth". Recollections guide to collectible LPsvolume 1, p. In Glen Ballou ed. Howard W. Small Signal Audio Design. Haber Audio Engineering Society. Entertainment Weekly Hal Leonard Corporation. Journal of Popular Culture. The Business Online. London: Telegraph. Rolling Stone. The Sydney Morning Herald.
Archived from the original PDF on The trend to buy vinyl records continues. Since has the global sales increased from approximately 3. Despite this, is it still a small part of the total record sale. In Sweden was The artists who sell most ar usually older artists and records. Other popular artists are Beatles, Led Zeppelin and Adele" a screenshot of the teletext page exist and can be uploaded, if allowed at Commons and if requested.
Music Year-End Report". Release date: November Label: Warner Bros. Records Formats: LP, 8-track, cassette. AUS: Platinum . Formats: CD, Download. Release date: October Label: Warner Bros. America is on side 1 and The Eagles are on side 2. Hat Trick. Featuring Joe Walsh on lead guitar. First single produced by George Martin. California Dreaming soundtrack. Silent Letter.
US charts are Billboard unless otherwise noted. View from the Ground. Your Move. The Last Unicorn soundtrack. Encore: More Greatest Hits. I Need You 2. Rainy Day 3. Never Found The Time 4.
Clarice 5. Donkey Jaw 6. Pigeon Song.
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