Consort Audite Nova - A Little Something For Xmas (File, MP3)
Freeman also hosts the channel Our Space on ClickStar, with specially crafted film clips in which he shares his love for the sciences, especially space exploration and aeronautics. In alone, he provided narration for two films, War of the Worlds and the Academy Award -winning documentary film March of the Penguins.
InFreeman was offered a lead role in Jurassic Park. In a interview with Atlanta Radio Correspondent Veronica WatersFreeman revealed that he was stunned when he learned that birds are descended from dinosaurs. While he turned down the role, Freeman spent the next summer reading books on ornithology.
This would later lead to his desire to narrate the documentary March of the Penguins. He teamed with Christopher Walken and William H. Macy for the comedy The Maiden Heistwhich was released direct to video due to financial problems of the distribution company.
He has wanted to do a film based on Nelson Mandela for some time. Freeman was married to Jeanette Adair Bradshaw from October 22,until He married Myrna Colley-Lee on June 16, The couple separated in December The actor has known her since she was a child. Black history is American history. Freeman has worked on narrating small clips for global organizations, such as One Earth, [ 20 ] whose goals include raising awareness of environmental issues. The Horse park is part of Mississippi State University.
Freeman has several horses that he takes there. Freeman was injured in an automobile accident near Ruleville, Mississippion the night of August 3, The vehicle in which he was traveling, a Nissan Maximaleft the highway and flipped over several times. Doctors operated for four hours to repair nerve damage in his shoulder and arm.
American actor Morgan Freeman in serious condition after car accident Freeman was injured in an automobile accident near Ruleville, Mississippion August 4 Freeman was evacuated via medical helicopter to a hospital in Memphis. Doctors operated for four hours trying to control nerve damage in his shoulder and arm.
Who is Joseph Jason Namakaeha Momoa? The world knows hims as Jason Momoa, he is an American actor and model. He was raised in Norwalk, Iowa by his mother. Jason Momoa was born August 1, in Honolulu, Hawaii. He Inreturned to Hawaii where he was discovered by international designer Takeo and launched his modeling career. On November 15, Momoa was attacked with a broken beer glass in Hollywood.
According to the APNews article, stitches and subsequent reconstructive surgery were required. Los Angeles County prosecutors are filing felony assault charges against his attacker.
June 15, Categories: actorentertainertelevision seriesWho is Tags: actorbaywatchentertainerJason Momoastargatewho is Leave a comment. Jimmy Ray Dean was an American country music singer, television host, actor and businessman. Dean died on June 13,of natural causes at his Varina, Virginiahome at the age of He is survived by his wife Donna.
Dean was born in Olton, Texasin He has attributed his interest in music to the Seth Ward Baptist Church. Air Force in the late s. Both Patsy Cline and Roy Clark got their starts with Dean, who eventually fired Clark, his lead guitarist, for his chronic tardiness. Dean replaced Clark with Billy Grammer. Cline and Dean became good friends during the run of Town and Country Time in the mids.
Recorded in Nashville, the record went to number one on the Billboard pop charts and inspired many imitations and parodies. It sold over one million copies, and was awarded a gold disc. In the early s, he hosted the Tonight Show on occasion and one night introduced Roy Clark, with whom he had remained friendly. Dean turned to acting after his TV show ended in The song was re-released inandbut with minor success each time. Its success led to its acquisition in by Consolidated Foods, later renamed the Sara Lee Corporation.
Dean remained involved in running the company, but the new corporate parent eventually began phasing him out of any management duties, a period that took a toll on his health. In JanuaryDean said that Sara Lee had dropped him as the spokesman for the sausage brand, but beginning in until his death inDean reappeared in a series of successful, whimsical ads for the sausage product. In the fall ofhe released his blunt, straight-talking autobiography 30 Years of Sausage, 50 Years of Ham. Dean lived in semi-retirement with second wife, Donna Meade Dean, a singer, songwriter, and recording artist he married inwho helped him write his book.
On April 20,the main house was largely gutted by a fire, although the Deans escaped injury. The Deans rebuilt their home on the same foundation and returned early in Who is Willard Christopher Smith, Jr.? Smith is an American actor, film producer and rapper. He has enjoyed success in music, television and film.
In AprilNewsweek called him the most powerful actor on the planet. In the late s, Smith achieved modest fame as a rapper under the name The Fresh Prince. Inhis celebrity increased dramatically when he starred in the popular television series The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air. The show ran for nearly six years — on NBC and has been syndicated consistently on various networks since then. In the mids, Smith transitioned from television to film, and ultimately starred in numerous blockbuster films that received broad box office success.
While still in his teens, Smith began rapping and eventually began collaborating with Jeff Townes a. DJ Jazzy Jeffwhom he met at a party. I had pretty high SAT scores and they needed black kidsso I probably could have gotten in. But I had no intention of going to college. Smith spent money freely during his early career and underpaid his income taxes.
Smith was nearly bankrupt in when the NBC television network signed him to a contract and built a sitcomThe Fresh Prince of Bel-Airaround him. The show was successful and launched his acting career.
After The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air ended May 20,Smith began a successful solo music career while simultaneously starring in a series of films. He originally rejected the lead role in Men in Blackbut wife Jada Pinkett Smith coaxed him into acceptance. In he starred with Gene Hackman in Enemy of the State.
Smith also released a string of hit singles, often associated with his most recent film, throughout the late s.
His first two solo albums, Big Willie Style and Willenniumwent multi-platinum. Smith was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actorfor the film Ali, for his portrayal of the boxer Muhammad Aliformerly known as Cassius Clay, in the biopic.
He was again nominated for Best Actor Oscar for his role in another true-life movie, The Pursuit of Happynesswhere he played Chris Gardner in his rags-to-riches story. He later signed a recording contract with Interscope Records. Smith appeared as himself in Jersey Girl delivering the Silent Bob speech that appears in nearly all Kevin Smith movies.
InSmith was entered into the Guinness Book of World Records for attending a record breaking three premieres in a hour time span. The single stayed atop the charts for months and returned Smith to the forefront of hip-hop. He has planned to star in a feature film remake of the television series It Takes a Thief. Smith left an imprint of his hands and feet outside the world renowned theater in front of many fans. Despite marginally positive reviews, [ 16 ] its opening was the largest ever for a film released in the United States during December.
Smith is currently developing a film entitled The Last Pharaohin which he will star as Taharqa. Obama stated that the two have discussed a possibility of a film based on the election, but this may not happen until the end of the Obama presidency.
Smith was raised by his parents, Willard and Caroline, in West Philadelphia. Smith married actress Jada Pinkett in Smith has said he has studied multiple religions, including Scientologyand he has said many complimentary things about Scientology and other faiths.
I Consort Audite Nova - A Little Something For Xmas (File a student of all religions, and I respect all people and all paths. To see more of Who Is click here. May 5, Categories: Uncategorized Tags: actorfilm producerrapperwill smith Leave a comment.
Who is David Adkins? The Comedy world knows him better by the stage name Sinbad. He is an American stand-up comedian and actor. He became well-known in the late s and s from being featured on his own HBO specials, appearing on several television series, and starring in the family-friendly films HouseguestFirst Kidand Jingle All the Way. Donald Adkins. He attended college from to at the University of Denver in DenverColoradowhere he lettered two seasons for the basketball team.
Sinbad was almost dismissed with a dishonorable discharge for various misbehaviors, including going AWOL. He married Meredith Fuller in They had two children together, including Christopher Sawula, an historian at the University of Guam, and divorced in They remarried in Under the professional name Sinbad, [ 6 ] he began his career appearing on Star Search. Sinbad won his round against fellow comedian Dennis Miller[ 7 ] appearing a total of seven times.
Huxtable attended Hillman College, a fictional historically black college. This show was never given the accolades it should have.
She was not interested in him until he asked her to marry him. The two decided to cancel the wedding due to differing outlooks on life. Other appearances during this hiatus from episodic television were in the telefilm Aliens for Breakfastand two appearances on Bill Nye, the Science Guy.
By the early s, his popularity had grown enough for Fox to green-light The Sinbad Showwhich premiered September 16, In the self-titled series, Sinbad played year-old David Bryan, a bachelor who decides to become a foster parent to two children after becoming emotionally attached to them.
The Sinbad Show was cancelled, with the last episode airing April 21, The special was recorded at Morehouse College in AtlantaGeorgia. He hosted a Soul Train episode that aired January 14, ; appeared as a contestant in a episode of Celebrity Jeopardy! Spencer was fired in October, and replaced by Sinbad; the series lasted until the summer of Trinidad Memorial Stadium. He was also featured in a infomercial for Tae Bowhere he claimed that he was successfully using the Tae Bo system to become an action star.
On March 14,he debuted on the Celebrity Apprentice and was fired on the second episode March 21, after losing in the Kodak challenge as project manager. InSinbad was placed in the top 10 of the worst tax debtors for the state of California. The comedian owed the State 2. On December 11thSinbad filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy. On February 5,it was reported that Sinbad has put up his 2. Peter Abraham Haskell [ 1 ] died he was Haskell was an American actor who worked primarily in television.
Guest appearances on The Outer LimitsDr. KildareThe Man from U. He was married to Annie Compton from until their divorce. Inhe married Dianne Tolmich. She did not immediately post the cause of death.
To see more of who died in click here. Ned Beatty with Lloyd Bridges appeared in movies. Ward Bond appeared in movies! Adoor Bhasi.
Before his death inBhasi was featured in films. Mel Blanc is the actor in the most American movies at ! India made a record of movies in just one year,and Indian actors regularly make more movies than Hollywood actors. April 14, Categories: Uncategorized Tags: actorthe most movies Leave a comment. Who is Takuya Kimura? Most of the TV dramas he starred in produced high ratings in Japan. Then, he lived and attended elementary school and junior high school in Chiba.
Skate Boys used to be backup dancers of Hikaru Genjiwhich at the time was a very popular group. InSMAP was created, and he joined. When SMAP had their first concert, the hall was almost empty, too. The series, based on a then-popular manga of the same name, quickly became a hit. The term refers to a phenomenon in which some young boys copy his fashion. DuringKimura continued his streak of hit dramas with Gift and Love Generation.
However Giftwas criticized for its violent plot which allegedly promoted teenage crime. Inhe played a leading role in a TV series Beautiful Life. He also announced his marriage with Shizuka Kudoanother idol. By the time of the announcement, Shizuka was pregnant. InKimura starred in Herowhich set a record with its high TV ratings of about In Kimura made an appearance as a supporting actor in the movienominated at Cannes.
In the original version shown in the Cannes Film Festival, his scene lasted about 7 minutes, although in the final edition, which was played in Japan, it was extended to approximately 20 minutes. Along with the original cast, he revived his role as prosecutor Kuryu Kohei. Additional big name stars were also seen in this drama, including Socrates in Love star Haruka Ayase.
Directed by Yoji Yamada he played a young blind samurai during the Edo period. It has proved a major success, sparking rumours that a sequel will be produced. In he ended the nine-year relationship with his longtime girlfriend Kaorin. The next year on November 23, he announced he was going to marry Shizuka Kudoanother Japanese pop idol.
They married on December 5, Corin William Redgrave died he was Redgrave was an English actor and political activist.
He later repeated the role on Broadway, where he earned a Tony Award nomination. Redgrave was a lifelong activist in left-wing politics. More recently, he became a defender of the interests of the Romani people. Corin Redgrave represented the third generation of a theatrical dynasty spanning four generations. His first wife, Deirdre Redgrave, died of cancer and his sister, Lynnis in remission from breast cancer for which she was treated in recent years. In March Corin made his return to the London stage playing the title role in Trumbobased on the life of the blacklisted Hollywood screen writer Dalton Trumbo.
On opening night Corin dedicated his performance to the memory of Natasha Richardsonhis niece, who had died earlier that week following a skiing accident. He died on 6 April in a South London hospital. The actor and director Buza Ferraz, 59, died at am this Saturday in Rio de Janeiro, according to the Samaritan Hospital, where he was hospitalized.
Buza was taken to hospital due to malaise and had a fatal cardiac arrest while being treated. O ator sofria de leucemia. The actor was suffering from leukemia. Buza, who directed the film For All — Springboard to Victorymade his last work inthe series make its history of Rede Globo. O seu primeiro trabalho foi na novela Selva de Pedraem His first work was the novel concrete jungle in He was also Estorvo movie producerbased in Chico Buarque de Hollanda.
Son of the traditional family in Rio, he graduated in Journalism, but chose to devote himself to playwriting. Em pouco tempo, Ferraz chegou ao cargo de diretor. Soon, Ferraz reached the position of director. On TV, it was heart-throb several global productions of the 80s. Botafogo, has been married to actress Gilda Guilhon. InBuza lost his father, who committed suicide.
Emse afastou da tv para fazer cinema. Inretired from television to cinema. Era casado com Denise Maiacom quem teve cinco filhos e uma enteada. Denise was married to Maia, who had five sons and one stepdaughter. In an interview with RJ TV, Globo, Denise revealed that her husband was fighting leukemia, but that his death had no association with the disease.
Also according to the widow, Buza was on a site in Teresopolis, mountainous region of Rio, when he began to feel ill. When he arrived at the hospital had three cardiac arrests and a kind of pulmonary edema.
Another tragedic news from Korean Entertainment industry. He was first found in critical condition in his house and was quickly sent to Yonsei hospital where he was announced dead.
There was a bruise around his neck area and it is assumed that he had commited a suicide. Choi Jin-Young was Choi Jin-Young is famous for being a younger brother of a Korean actress Choi Jin-Shil who also ended her life with her own will on October of He was suffering from depression after her death and was taking the same anti-depression pills that his sister had taken.
It is being told that Choi Jin-Young had committed to suicide at least once after his sister passed away. However, the assumed suicide seems to be a spontaneous one because Choi Jin-Young had an appointment to meet someone on the day of his death.
Peter Aurness[ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] known professionally as Peter Graveshas died he was Graves was an American film and television actor. He has an older brother, actor James Arness born of the long-running Gunsmoke western series, which aired on CBS from Graves appeared in more than seventy films, TV series and TV movies. The series also starred Anthony Wickert as Dan. After the series ended inGraves played a cameo-type support role in the feature film Sidecar Racers in Australia Consort Audite Nova - A Little Something For Xmas (File was released in Graves was the only original cast member to return as a regular although others made guest appearances.
The series was filmed in Australia, and Graves made his third journey there for acting work. The new version of Mission: Impossible lasted for two seasons, ending in Bookending his work on Mission: ImpossibleGraves starred in two pilot films called Call to Dangerwhich were an attempt to create a Mission: Impossible -style series in which Graves played a government agent the Bureau of National Resources who recruited civilians with special talents for secret missions.
The concept was later used in the s adventure series Masquerade. In the film update of Mission: Impossiblethe character of Phelps was reimagined as a traitor who murdered three fellow IMF agents, a decision that disappointed Graves. Jon Voight was cast as Phelps. Graves was married to Joan Endress from [ 2 ] until his death. Graves died of a heart attack on March 14,[ 16 ] four days prior to his 84th birthday. The actor had just returned from brunch with his wife and children, collapsing before he could enter the house.
Although one of his daughters administered CPR, she could not revive him. March 15, Categories: Uncategorized Tags: actorairplanemission impossiblepeter graves Leave a comment. Create a free website or blog at WordPress. Kterrl's Favorites Just another WordPress.
Home Hot music Videos kterrls Video Favorites. Who is Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll? The Latin Music world knows her simply as Shakira, she is a Colombian singer-songwritermusicianrecord producerdancer and philanthropist who has been a major figure in the pop music scene of Latin America since the mids. She is a native Spanish speaker and also speaks fluent English, PortugueseItalian,  and some Arabic.
Inshe broke through onto the English-speaking world with the release of Laundry Servicewhich sold over fifteen million copies worldwide. Shakira was to be awarded with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Famewhich would have made her the first Colombian to receive this honor. Snoop Dogg was born October 20, When he began recording, he took the stage name Snoop Doggy Dogg.
Gin and Juice. Who is Dwayne Michael Carter, Jr? Tha Carter IIthe follow-up to the original Tha Carter album, was released in Decemberthis time without production by longtime Cash Money Records producer Mannie Freshwho had since left the label.
Jonathan Cohen of Billboard magazine reported that the event would mark his biggest hometown headlining set of his career. They plan to release an album after B. DJ Drama stated that there would be a third installation of the Dedication mixtape series with Lil Wayne,  who insisted that it will would be a full album under the title.
On January 23,Lil Wayne was arrested alongside two others. After taking Lil Wayne into custody, police discovered a.
The gun, which was registered to his manager, was in a bag located near the rapper. On October 22,Lil Wayne pleaded guilty to attempted criminal possession of a weapon. The surgery included eight root canals, the replacement of several tooth implants, as well as the addition of a few new implants and work on his remaining original teeth. On March 2,sentencing was postponed again when the courthouse reported a fire in the basement. His lawyer said the rapper expected to be held in protective custody, separated from other prisoners.
Which was true. Wayne was released from Rikers Island on November 4, A with Eazy-Ewhich popularized the use of explicit lyrics in rap to detail the violence of street life.
Rolling Stone named him among the highest-paid performers of  and Did you know who is the best selling and most talented rapper of all time? Career While he is mostly known for acting in films, Mewes also has worked in television. Personal life Smith entered Mewes into the first of a series of drug rehabilitation clinics inafter noticing Mewes was nodding off during the recording of the Chasing Amy commentary track.
Did you know that according to Guiness Book what show is the most watched TV show in the world? Ludacris is seen and interviewed at various stages, just months before achieving major fame. Did you know what actor hold the record for most nominations without ever winning an Oscar in a competitive category?
Who is Morgan Porterfield Freeman, Jr.? Billy Ford Se7en Detective Lt. After Stargate Atlantis season 4 shooting was over, Jason Momoa had his dreadlocks cut off. The weight of them was causing him headaches, and even whiplash when filming action scenes. To see more Who Is click here. Jimmy Dean, American country music singer, television host, actor and businessman, died of natural causes he was81 Jimmy Ray Dean was an American country music singer, television host, actor and businessman.
Who is Willard Christopher Smith? My mother kept begging me to go back. I hear all this bad talk against men and their children. I just got so tired of it. And we are going to accept that responsibility, which we used to do in our culture. In addition to funding support, each of the stations will receive access to resources that will strengthen their organizational and financial capacity.
Among these resources are monthly virtual professional development sessions; executive coaching; learning and evaluation tools; coordination with national service organizations that can provide additional technical and research support; individual station financial and audience assessments; support for stations' diversity, equity and inclusion efforts; connections with artists and industry leaders; and access to audience development resources and expertise.
By designing a program grounded in cohort learning and collaboration, DDCF hopes the Jazz Media Lab will deepen the peer network relationships of mutual support among jazz stations that endure beyond DDCF funding. About the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation - The mission of the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation DDCF is to improve the quality of people's lives through grants supporting the performing arts, environmental conservation, medical research and child well-being, and through preservation of the cultural and environmental legacy of Doris Duke's properties.
At the core of DDCF's work in pursuit of this mission is a dedication to serving and learning from organizations and individuals addressing inequities and working toward a more just, healthy, sustainable and inclusive society. To that end, the Arts Program of DDCF focuses its support on contemporary dance, jazz and theater artists, and the organizations that nurture, present and produce them. For more information, visit www.
Although he loved playing, his interest in current events and politics pulled him into a journalism career. O'Keefe, 37, is about to become a fixture in the White House press room, as he will cover the Biden administration for the TV network he joined in But he has never left his first passion far behind. Yet another one of New York's most beloved venues is in danger of closing for good. Birdland Jazz Club, a staple of the New York City jazz community sinceneeds help with the debt it has found itself in due to the health crisis.
The club has established itself as an essential part of New York jazz history. I cannot imagine what a celestial-level bummer it must be to spend more than two centuries hovering around the ether, waiting for your big sestercentennial bash to pop off and take over the planet, only to have the whole thing called off at the last minute. So before we go any further, on behalf of Earth, its people and all of our germs, I'd like to extend a sincere apology heavenward to one Ludwig van Beethoven for what has to be I didn't double-check this the worst birthday ever.
Also, happy belated th. All throughas coronavirus case numbers soared and hopes plummeted, I watched and whimpered as one monumental Beethoven tribute after another crumbled.
I did this less out of despair over the events themselves than what their collapse represented: Leonard Bernstein once observed that Beethoven's music was propelled from note to note and indeed from age to age by a sense of inevitability. If Beethoven could be shut down, what chance did the rest of us stand? The year started with massive expectations for the memory of Ludwig van Beethoven, the wild-haired and scowling composer whose cantankerous visage was seemingly at odds with the enduring humanity and optimism of his music.
But all of our lives were forced to take a hard left, putting many a plan - Beethoven-graced or otherwise - on indefinite hold. So we wondered: How do we pull off The Big in the midst of such an incredibly turbulent year? From Saturday, December 12 through Wednesday, December 16, tune in terrestrially to Anchoring the festivities is Quest for Joy, Marin Alsop's four-part series that takes listeners on a musical and emotional journey towards understanding how the composer's loneliness and longing gave rise to some of his most enduring works.
Together they'll offer new perspectives on the music and the myth of the influential composer. Plus, a brand new episode with British entrepreneur Martha Lane Fox. And of course Bingo returns for our littlest listeners, with new ways to energize the joyous youth through music and education. Sony Music Masterworks and Wise Music Group have announced a new strategic partnership to identify and sign top artist and composer talent. Sony Music Masterworks and Wise Music will work together to sign new writers in the broad-based classical genre to recording and publishing agreements that allow both companies to apply their respective strengths to the development of multi-faceted and long-term careers.
The first two signings under the new agreement are Icelandic instrumental duo Hugar and Reykjavik-based post-classical composer Eydis Evensen pictured. Sony Music Masterworks president, Mark Cavell, said: "We are excited to be working with the creative and experienced team at Wise Music Group to further grow our business in the UK and around the world. By bringing together the incomparable skills and experience of both teams, we can offer artists the best possible home for their recorded and published works.
The potential of the resultant joined-up thinking of our creative teams is indeed exciting. WFMT is excited to welcome two new voices to our host roster! Payton, who join as fill-in hosts. Growing up listening to WFMT with her family in the Chicago suburbs, she was moved to pick up the trumpet herself.
Kristina says she was inspired to speak to the WFMT veteran host. And he was very open and gave me great advice… It was life-changing…" she shares, "and it steered me on this path to audition for music school.
Bass-baritone LaRob K. Bugs Bunny does classical music. In high school, a second pivotal moment came in LaRob's music career.
His school was majority Black, but in the performing arts program, the teaching staff was predominantly white. He learned the standard repertoire: "the 24 Italian songs, Schubert, Mozart. Industry experts dismissed it as futile. December 1st, Mount Wilson again swims against the tide with the assistance of digital technology to re-launch Wolfgang and Bach on KMZT with an improved analog signal and hybrid technology providing KMZT with stereo.
And assisted with Digital FM on Listen As Follows: 1. Com 4. On 17 December the world will celebrate the th anniversary of the birth of Ludwig van Beethoven. As part of an ambitious year-long anniversary campaign Deutsche Grammophon and their artists will celebrate Beethoven with a wide range of projects, digital concerts, and innovative releases on and around the composer's birthday including: Deutsche Grammophon has recorded more of Beethoven's music than any other record label Deutsche Grammophon has a long and proud association with Beethoven's music.
Eleven decades later the label launched their th anniversary campaign and released, among other recordings, Beethoven — The New Complete Edition, created in collaboration with the Beethoven-Haus Bonn.
Deutsche Grammophon has recorded more of Beethoven's music than any other record label and their world-class artists have released their own personal tributes reflecting the depth and breadth of the composer's timeless catalogue. One day back in the 60's I was walking down Colorado Blvd in Pasadena. A small record store had a speaker posted on the street. I heard the cool modal sounds of Miles Davis beaming over that little speaker.
Paul Chambers bass line pulled me into that store like a moth to a flame and I was hooked! If you like that you'll love this said the clerk handing me an 8 track tape of Wes Montgomery.
I popped that8 track into my 65 mustang and started Bumpin' on Sunset. Years later my friend was managing an apartment building in Westwood. He offered me a unit. As it turned out, it was directly across the street from KBCA. I pestered the stations owner for 2 years until I was finally hired. The universe provides and it all began with Kind of Blue. Today, more than half of GBH's total impressions are digital. As the world moves from the age of broadcast to the era of streaming, we've decided to drop the W from our name to reflect this shift in how we connect with our audiences.
Why should traditional radio broadcasting adapt to this digital era? As we all know, the broadcast audience is changing. Largely due to the pandemic and a marked decrease in commuter listening in the last six months, overall broadcast listeners have shifted habits.
At the same time, the streaming audience is growing and the social media audience is exploding. How can we get radio listeners to know about and consume broadcast content online? Although many of the things associated with broadcast are evolving, one thing remains constant, and that is high-quality content. Photo by Meredith Nierman. KING-FM had occupied its studios in the Lower Queen Anne neighborhood of Seattle for more than two decades when its landlord informed management that the building would be torn down for condos.
The station began looking for a new long-term home. Meanwhile the Seattle Opera had just moved into a new nearby building on the Seattle Center campus near the Space Needle, a building with multiple performance venues and space set aside on the second floor for a future tenant. The space was a perfect fit for Seattle's famous nonprofit, listener-supported classical music station. CEO Brenda Barnes said in"We are thrilled to be moving into this beautiful space, and to be in such close proximity to one of our most important partners.
Every year, THR surveys industry professionals to get their take on the world's finest institutions of musical learning, and in particular how they stack up in terms of positioning composers and musicians for jobs in media. This year, however, the focus is on COVID and the challenges it has presented, including limiting the number of players who can perform student compositions.
Nevertheless, with help from a survey sent to the roughly 1, members of the Society of Composers and Lyricists, the Alliance for Women Film Composers and the Composers Diversity Collective, here are the 20 music schools still thriving despite a year of sour notes.
This may not lead many broadcasters to fully abandon their analog broadcasts, but it has prompted one radio station owner to move forward with a hybrid signal - a move that brings kHz-based HD Radio to greater Los Angeles. On Thursday afternoon, Mt. Wilson finds that KSUR's transmissions using HD Radio are "significantly improved," with noise reduction and "a good stereo transmission.
It's tied to the introduction of an all-digital platform for "KMozart. That our hands have the capacity to perform these movements repeatedly and without thinking about them is due to muscle or motor memory. But suppose a hand were transplanted from another body. Could it-would it-retain unthinking memories created with that original body?
If you were to ask Hollywood, the answer is a very blood-curdling scream of "YES! The relationship between science fact and science fiction has always been something of a bridge, with inspiration flowing in both directions. Whether it's Leonardo da Vinci's revolutionary plans for flying machines and concentrated solar power, Jules Verne's Extraordinary Voyages series, or Star Trek's hands-free, voice-activated communicators and phasers, it's our imagination that keeps us in fear or helps us conquer it.
Just as the unimaginable becomes the near-at-hand, so too do we brush aside the veils of superstition and fear. Well, mostly. The ancient and universal nightmares still persist today, even, and perhaps especially, when we should know better. READ So, something that we in the UK today might not i ii i ignize too much, unless you happen to be a Phil Collins fan. The I liuites of northern Syria were doing very well, thank you very much, with a whole host of instruments, among them the guitar, trumpet, lambourine and lyre.
Later still, around ?? But to get to the first actual recorded piece of music, you have to skip a full two hundred or so years, back to the Sumerians. They had got their five-note scale, too, some time after ?? It was a hymn and, obviously, when I say recorded, I mean it was carved on what is known as a cuneiform tablet, a wedge-shaped piece of clay, which would be inscribed with a stylus when wet.
Now, if I simply ignore the best part of a hundred years or so - and believe me, I am more than prepared to do that - then I can get on to the Greeks, in earnest. And who better to start with than Terpander of Lesbos? Er, that's a rhetorical question, by the way.
But before we get down to business, we need to see what sort of artistic world this Terpander chap was born into. You see, somewhere, somehow, between here and the old court musicians in Egypt, music had gone from being pretty much nothing to pretty much everything.
Music, the Greeks now believed, was the bringer of all things good. It shaped morals. It Consort Audite Nova - A Little Something For Xmas (File. The 'aural' pleasure of music was but the tiny tip of the iceberg. Music was much more important than just the smile it raised. It was, also, not just about music. Music to the Greeks - mousike - meant three things: dancing and poetry, as well as music itself.
Terpander of Lesbos lived from to ?? He is credited with inventing the seven-stringed lyre and, whether he did or not, he certainly made a big enough noise with it at the 26th ancient Olympiad, Consort Audite Nova - A Little Something For Xmas (File in Sparta, to become a bit of a national hero. If this wasn't enough to win him fame and fortune, he also allegedly started the first music schools in Sparta. Around the same time, a more legendary character was also making a bit of a splash in the music world.
Arion was a native of Samos, a famous musician working at the court of Periander, the king of Corinth. These days, he is largely remembered for two things: first, that he introduced the idea of 'strophes' and, thus, 'antistrophes' -that is, the alternating parts of a stanza.
Secondly, though, and slightly more interestingly, he is also remembered for what happened to him at sea. On the way back from a music competition in Sicily, his boat was stormed by pirates, who robbed him and were about to throw him overboard when Arion asked that he be allowed to sing one last song.
He took up his lyre and sang so beautifully that dolphins gathered around the boat. When he was finally made to walk the plank, he got a lift on the back of a dolphin and was ferried safely to the shore. I do love a happy ending. The next major character in the incomplete and utter history of Greek music is the multi-talented Pythagoras. No, there weren't two people named Pythagoras - this is the very same person who lived from ??
Pythagoras more or less came up with the scale we have today. Legend has it that he got some of his inspiration from watching and listening to a blacksmith at work hammering. Noticing ih. It's said that, from this, he derived the intervals of an octave, a fifth, a fourth and a tone.
If true, 11 wouldn't be the last time that making music and getting hammered had gone hand in hand. Pythagoras died in around ??.?? He was a 'Boeotian' - that is, both a resident of central? Pindar was a well-travelled nobleman and enough fragments of his work survive to make it clear that he more or less invented the ode.
He was also a bit of a wiz on the aulos, the cithara, and the lyre. Clever clogs, no doubt, but a bit B-list when you compare him to the chap who came along just eleven years after he died - Mr Lato: Mr P. Not only did Plato give us most of our info on Pythagoras, he also laid down a few 'philosophical' ideas about music, too, both in his Republic and Laws. Music consists of three aspects, he said: the word, the harmony and the rhythm. Instrumental music was out. Words were integral. He also had a few things to say about the nature of the different modes.
The different modes were, more or less, the different scales that each piece was played in - not exactly scales, and not exactly keys, to be precise, but the groups of notes used to play any given piece.
Plato believed he could define many of the characters of the modes, and, going one step further, could prescribe and recommend different modes for different things.
The 'Mixolydian' mode, he said, was full of wailing and lamenting, while the 'Lydian' and even 'Ionian' modes were effeminate and relaxing - and therefore unsuitable for fighting men.
Pieces composed in the 'Dorian' mode were heroic, while the 'Phrygian' character was persuasive. I wonder if anyone ever took his advice to heart and faced a marauding enemy of barbarians, armed only with a Lydian ode, hoping to relax them to death?
Born in Stagirus, Macedonia, in ?? Aristotle wouldn't it be lovely if we could find evidence to suggest he was known as Ari to his friends? He, too, thought that music was MUCH more important than the simple aural pleasure that it gave. It had real ethical power, and it was vitally important in the process of education.
He disagreed with Plato, though, on the subject of words. He was prepared to accept instrumental music, because, he thought, it spoke directly to the listener's emotions, unhindered by a poet's words. To him, music was almost homeopathic and certainly cathartic. If he were in charge today, you'd probably be able to get a prescription at the chemist's for string quartets, to be taken two or three times a day, with food.
One of his principal theories was that the soul is to the body what harmony is to the musical instrument. He also moved away from the ideas of his former teachers, the Pythagoreans, by saying that you shouldn't work out notes of a scale by mathematical ratio alone, but also by ear.
Aristoxenus' dates are not known, exacdy, but presuming, as most do, that he was dead and curried by, at the latest, ?? Nothing much happened until around 50??. At some stage m this period, some clever sausage decided that the aulos, or pipe, had???
They were always miming out of breath. So, a 'pumped aulos' was born, on much the name principle as the uilleann pipes, where a player would squeeze an air bladder with one arm, while playing the pipes with both hands. Then, in the third century?? Came complete with galoshes. Ctesibus was the son of a barber and very popular with the emperors of Rome. As an engineer, he had worked on the restoration of the aqueducts. In fact, he had even designed machines of war for the emperor, intended to inflict maximum pain on those with whom they came into contact.
So I suppose it was only natural that he turn his hand to the organ. It was probably he who more or less invented it. Contemporaneous accounts tefl of his 'mechanike syntaxii, a pan pipe 'which is played with the hands and is known as the hydraulis' in which 'the wind mechanism forces the air into a pnigeus of brass placed in the water'.
Got that? I think it's basically saying that he almost certainly developed the first organ, of sorts, and with it, presumably the first bandy-legged musician, with slighuy staring eyes, a somewhat mad smile and a tendency to invade your personal space. Or should I say, 'the organist'. The organ was to prove a big hit at Delphi in 90?? It was followed by the next big thing, some forty years later, just as Gaius Julius Caesar and Pompey were fighting it out for the laurel wreath, namely the oboe.
In fact, although he is now almost always considered first and foremost a violinist, the Emperor Nero was almost certainly an oboe player. Sadly, when I think of the words 'Emperor Nero' now, I immediately see 'Emperor Christopher Biggins', swimming in a not-quite-voluminous enough toga in front of a set that's only just this side of shaky.
I, Claudius has a lot to answer for. Skipping blithely over the fact that the Chinese reordered their octave into sixty parts in 38?? Of course! AD is all the rage, now, and absolutely everybody is accessorizing with a fish. Music would prove useful in spreading what was at first no more than a sect. Statement and response psalms were a fantastic tool in the spread of Christianity, as was the soon-to-be-ubiquitous 'hymn'.
Saints Augustine and Jerome were quick to see the benefit of being able to keep a message at the front of the mind with a catchy tune, although they did, at the same time, worry about the 'sensual pleasure' that the music gave and whether there was damage being done.
Because of the essentially 'word of mouth' nature of the medium, too, it was frequendy the case that incorrect or even deliberately false info was getting through in these hymns. This is where the first big saviour of music stepped in.
He was big, he was bold, he was brash - he was Bishop, to be fair, of Milan. And he went by the seductively sexy name of….
OK, not that sexy, I admit, but still, eh? Don't shoot Melinda Messenger, as it were. Ambrose was, indeed, the Bishop of Milan, elected in a bizarre manner when he was thirty-five. It's said during a gathering to find a new bishop, at which Ambrose was present but not actually a contender, a child from the crowd began to chant the words: 'Ambrose… bishop… Ambrose… bishop'.
Taking this as divine intervention, of course, rather than, say, just plain odd, a rather reluctant Ambrose was given the office. Up to Ambrose's time, music in church was generally performed by professional chanters, who would more or less monop-? Ambrose opened up the singing to the people, wiili antiphonal chanting, which was enough to move St Augustine, lor one, to tears.
It's blown now as 'Ambrosian Chant' and is still practised today in i IK- northern part of Italy, favoured over the now almost wall-to-wall t iugorian chant after Pope Gregory IX - more on him in a minute. To put it into context, this was around the time that the Roman legions started the mass exodus from the inclement little outpost they i.
Ambrosian chant, Gregorian chant - it all comes under the banner headline 'plainsong': generally sung by monks in monasteries, on one note, with occasional organ accompaniment. I always think it is an unfortunate phrase because it's often far from 'plain' at all. It's beautiful stuff. This whole period of Ambrose and Gregory is, to be fair, considered by many to be more or less the start of classical music, as we know it today, mainly because it is the first period where we really got anything like a sizeable chunk of the stuff written down.
Of course, as we've seen, there had been music around long, long before this. The Sumerians playing from their wedge-shaped tablets, the Greeks on their aulos, and even the Egyptians on their flutes.
Clever chaps, the Egyptians - even had James Galway before everyone else. In fact, immediately after this, it happened again. Nothing, I mean. To be fair, it went on happening for a good two centuries. Happening for two whole centuries! If you want to get any idea what that must have been like, try ringing a computer helpline.
All the while, though, the world just kept on turning. The years fairly creaked by. Turn ti turn. In fact, before you knew it, it was already, ooh, later the same afternoon.
Eventually, though, the last Roman out of Britain had said '?????? There you are, see. Less 'the history of this period' and more a role-playing game. Then, all of a sudden, before you could say 'bring out your dead', it was To be fair, it's almost Hiiain, now, that he was just one of a bunch of mainly religious Igurcs who tried to move music on, generally, but, through a mixture ul legend and personal influence, it's he who is remembered for it.??
Mid, back then, you probably couldn't have a safer bet for making sure you got your 'plus one' on a bouncer's guest list. The legend is more difficult to fathom. It appears that, despite being just one of a bunch? Still, it does Hive us a very convenient pivot point. Gregorian chant had arrived and the last echoing spoonful of Ambrosian had faded away to nothing.
Step forward… Gregory I. He, as well as despatching St Augustine to Thanet with the words, 'Mmm, Gus, baby, I've got a cute little job for you… go get your brolly…', he it is who decides to get together a school, the Schola Cantorum, in Rome, to have another go at sorting the whole music business out. Allegedly, it was also around now that a new breed was formed, the mcmagerius brandius or 'brand manager', as they came to be known.
Or at least, it was the first known time that anyone used the phrase 'Let's make sure we're all singing from the same hymnsheet. We're officially off the mark. Beautiful, generally single-note stuff. Music has arrived, thanks to a mixture of Saints Ambrose and Gregory. No, not Fawkes. Sorry to rush but I do have rather a lot of centuries to cover.
I've taken the liberty of moving on a few hundred years, if that's OK? King Canute is now boss of Britain Pic, and paddling is in. And just as Mr and Mrs Khayyam put a small ad in the Persian Post announcing the birth of little Omar, the musical world was getting to grips with a new system invented by a man called Guido d'Arezzo.
He it was who laid the groundwork for another mythically talented musician, the great aforementioned 'Julie of Andrews'.
As his name suggests, Guido spent a lot of his life in the Italian city of Arezzo, some 30 kilometres north of Lake Trasimeno. He was a Benedictine monk who had moved from his native Paris. Guido's method invented a series of words to go with the notes, or in the words of Queen Julie herself, 'One shalt commence at the very outset, indeed a goodly place wherein to begin.
When one dost peruse, one surely inaugurates the process by means of the initial three symbols, ABC, when thou singest, thou leadest with "Do re mi"'.
Er, etcetera. But, to be fair… it more or less sums it up. So next time you're talking about The Sound of Music, maybe drop into the conversation, 'Ah, yes, the old tonic solfa system, as pioneered by Guido d'Arezzo in the eleventh century. Or was it Steps? In fact, old Guido was a busy little sausage. In this same year, just as the Chinese were putting the finishing touches to their pleasant albeit lethal mix of charcoal, sulphur and potassium nitrate - aka gunpowder - and the weird sounding poem on everyone's lips was Beowulf well, either that, or they were all drunkour man in the music world was also developing that cute litde five-line thing that all music is now written on, called 'the stave', also known as the staff.
This thing. With this litde thing, musicians need never get lost again. Unless they were male and driving with their girlfriends, of course. Anyway, the stave was from year Guido needed someone to work on his PR though, because most people have never heard of him. Maybe add a power initial to his name… let's see, Guido G.
That would have done it. That would have made them sit up and take notice. No doubt had he been living today, he would have been called something like the Guid-o-stave, just to make sure his name survived the years.
Guido d'Arezzo died in Just forty-eight years later, there came another musician working in a similar world - days spent in prayer and thought. This person, too, would make a significant contribution to music - maybe not in quite the same tangible and enduring way as Guido and his five famous lines, but important all the same. This person, born inreally did move music on to new heights, made sure it got noticed. But the truly shocking thing about this particular composer, arranger, poet and dreamer is… she was a woman!
Glad to have cleared that up. From Bingen, I mean. She wasn't born in Bingen, she didn't live in Bingen, and she didn't die in Bingen. If, at this point, you're thinking you may as well, just as.
No, although she was born in Rheinhessen and died in Rupertsberg, at least Rupertsberg -which is around sixty kilometres south-west of Stuttgart - is near ltingen. Glad to clear that up. Hildegard was clearly a remarkable woman, someone just as happy doling out advice to bishops - popes even - as she was preparing a soothing poultice of plant extracts, mixed to her own recipe.
She had visions from an early age, and was sent off to become an 'anchor' very early on. An 'anchor' was a sort of cross between a nun and an SAS survival expert - Ray Mears meets Sister Wendy - and Hildegard would have experienced a last rites ceremony before being shut off in solitary confinement. When she was forty-two, she had a vision which she said gave her total understanding of religious texts, and, from this point on, she wrote down everything she saw in her dreams and visitations.
Today, her major contribution is considered her musical one. She left behind her a large number of plainchants, often to her own texts, rather than the existing settings so common at the time.
I still find it sad that Hildegard is famous now not only because she was one of the first important composers of whom we have any record, but also because she was one of the ONLY female ones. As Mr Brown said, it's a man's world. Verily, be it the globe of a gentleman. But, moreover, he would, amounteth to little…. At least I think that's what he said. Hard to tell, when he shouts so much. Her story is all the more remarkable when you stop for a moment and think how hard it must have been not just to be a female composer in those days - jeepers, that's hard enough now - but, well, how hard it must have been to be a female ANYTHING!
Yes, I am a composer. Yes, as it happens, I do have visions, which I write down as soon as I can. Er, no, actually, I'm not a witch, thank you very much! I say we clasp a picture of her in one hand, a full goblet of wine in the other, and zoom on to to toast her non-witchly, eccentric musical-ness. Or whatever. Actually, is that a wart on her left cheek? It was also the year, in fact, that the world's first musical joke started doing the rounds. It went something like Consort Audite Nova - A Little Something For Xmas (File.
The twelth century, I mean. It was probably around this time that early jokes about drummers and percussionists were born. Jokes such as, 'What's the range of your average drum? About ten feet with a good throwing arm. If you think I'm being a little hard on drummers, then let me tell you: this is no more than my job.
I'm told there is a long-standing musical tradition, going back centuries - as you can see - which is behaviourally requisite for all musicians, and always has been. It runs alongside the virtue of 'always keeping an eye on where your next job is coming from' and it's known, in the business, as 'always being rude about drummers'. It is up there alongside 'always taking the piss out of viola players' and, to a lesser extent - albeit just as important -'always dragging your knuckles along the floor of the pub if you play a brass instrument'.
Q: How do you know when there's a drummer at the door? A: The knocking speeds up. Qj What do you call someone who hangs around with musicians? A: A drummer. Anyway let's get on. We've got to get tofor 'the next big thing' in music, as they say. Along the way let me try and fill you in on anything you need to know.
Modena Cathedral is consecrated inand, not to be outdone, three years later, the good burghers of Verona complete theirs. In fact, cathedrals are huge at the moment. Not just literally. Everybody wants one. Bamberg start theirs, Chartres theirs and the ochre-topped buildings of Sienna look forward to being ever in the warm shade of theirs. I tell you this for a reason, obviously, not just to pass the time of day, but more of that in a moment.
It was around the year that the carmine burana were written. These were a set of monastic songs, many of them with J3 With the possible exception of Mozart's work entitled Musical Joke, it is my theory that there is no such thing as a good musical joke.
Despite their origins within a monastery - or, more likely, because of their origins in a monastery - they concern themselves with subjects like love, and… drinking and… well, how shall I put it… lust! These bawdy ballads were written around the same time as Cambridge University was being founded, but were relatively unknown for a good eight centuries or so, until the Munich-born composer and educationalist Carl Orff put them to use in his piece ofwhich he called simply Carmina Burana.
I've made a note to mention this nearer the time so, for now, let's get on. Stand-up comedians. They started around now too. Probably to give the musicians a break, chance to nip to the bar, that sort of thing. Of course, they were called court jesters and they started to gain in popularity following the turn of the thirteenth century.
Apart from that there were a bunch? Ail in all, if your business card read 'Keith Groat - Cathedral Builder' then my guess is, despite the name setback, you were going to be a rich man. Which brings me neatly, if idiosyncratically, to and 'the next big thing'. Well, the Magna Carta is on its third reprint. Not bad for something with a dull ending and no real plot.
In terms of the big names around at the time, on the one hand there's Francis of Assisi, who has a year left to live. On the other hand - definitely on the other hand -there's Mr Khan, or Genghis, to his friends. It's the time of the later Crusades, the Mongol invasion of Russia and papal excommunications galore. In fact, you couldn't move for being excommunicated. So, that's just some of the detail ofif you were to run up l lie highest mountain and look around. But what of'the time'? How must it have felt and smelt, if you know what I mean.
And how was it, musically speaking? Well, that's why I was banging on about the cathedrals going up all over the place. Let's put ourselves in medieval shoes for a minute. Cathedrals - two things need to be understood about cathedrals. They're not cheap and they take a bugger of a long time to build. You can't buy them flat-packed with inadequate instructions and one bolt missing. These things are raised across generations.
And that gives you a big clue as to who had all the money in It also gives us a clue as to the state of the music business in Because cathedrals needed filling not just with people but with music.
H - music. Also, to the peasant in the street, it was oral, not unlike herpes simplex, in that it was passed from mouth to mouth. OK, doesn't quite bear up but you know what I mean. True, some written music was creeping in, in places, if you were rich enough. But generally, the norm was still a bunch of blokes, with faces like cows' bottoms, in draughty buildings singing one-note stuff. A bit like folk music today. And now 'the next big thing'.
Well, again, if you were rich enough, you could say the next big thing was 'cotton', which the Spanish had, just this year, started manufacturing. If you weren't rich enough, though - and let's face it, most folk weren't - then 'the next big thing'" was almost certainly a piece of music called 'Sumer is icumen in'. If not, can I venture floon'? A floon of cathedrals. Sounds fab to me and makes about as much sense as most other collective nouns.
I figure collective nouns are much like mountains and polar regions - whoever gets there first can claim them and name them. A floon. Thank you, and VII brook no arguments. In fact, come to think of it, quite rare for anything written down at all. I imagine there are historians the world over who would scream with orgasmic delight if they were to unearth a piece of notepaper saying 'Gone to mother's - chops for tea' if it came from So the fact that we have it is great. But also, 'Sumer', if it doesn't mind me calling it by its first name, is important because it is so advanced.
It's a round - a song where everybody sings more or less the same tune but at different times, a bit like 'Frere Jacques' - and it was written in six parts, four tenor and two bass, and was very complicated for the time. It dates from the mid-thirteenth century and its language is the beautiful and slightly unkempt Middle English.
If you don't speak fl Every time 1 read those words, I can virtually hear the birds singing, almost feel the sun shining, practically touch the disfigured heads as they're lovingly spiked on to sticks. Ahh… to be in again, now that 'Sumer' is here or at least icumen in. OK, so 'sumer' means spring, so what: what's a season between friends7. Middle English - and to be fair there can't be many who do who aren't called Gandalf - then just try reading some in a Cornish accent.
Works for me. It was almost certainly quilled by a monk of Reading Abbey, who is remembered now simply as John of Fornsete. It was meant to be a springtime song, heralding the approaching summer - figures - and is very folksong-like in style. There are some Latin words available to sing to it, but they don't fit anywhere near as well as the 'folk' type words and were almost certainly a later afterthought, just to show willing. It gains its 'next big thing' status by being so pioneering for its time.
People just weren't meant to be singing this sort of thing in Indeed, some scholars think they weren't. In fact, when a very learned sort by the name of Doc Manfred Bukofzer looked into it inhe decided it was almost certainly from a much later time.
Despite his concerns, it has managed to keep its place in the music history books as being written around So good old 'Sumer', that's what I say. This was a period when what was known as the 'ars antique was still the in thing. Meaning, literally, the old art, it was a term used only retrospectively for what was going on about now. It didn't really get its name until someone coined the term 'ars nova1 - new art - which was generally a freeing up from all the styles and some of the rules of the ars antiqua.
The big three in the world of ars antiqua would have to be Leonin, Perotin and Robert de Sabilon. Leonin was often referred to as an 'optimus organista? Perotin was the top man at Notre Dame in Paris for a time. De Sabilon also worked out of Paris, doing things you wouldn't believe with independent melodies. In fact, Paris was pretty big, generally, around now, and Notre Dame particularly. There were lots of troubadours, and minstrels all gathered in the city alongside monks and men of learning.
It strikes me that it might have been not dissimilar to the turn of twentieth-century Paris, where artists, musicians and thinkers all gathered to form a steamy, Bohemian cafe-culture.
This went on to leave its own heady mark on the arts in general, both then and now. One thing is certain, though, and that's that, in both periods, the cappuccinos were almost certainly cheaper.
Sounds odd to say that now, I guess, but back then -well, someone had to get it all together. Just like Gregory the Gorgeous had sorted out plainchant, so Franco got to grips with notes and how you wrote down how long each note lasted. He set his stall out in a little book called De musica mensurabilis or, if you like, 'Of Music and Measures', which sounds a little like a lost manuscript by John Steinbeck.
Up until now, there had been no agreed system for showing how long a note lasted. He it was who standardized the 'breve' as the unit of musical measure. A semibreve is this?
And so on, down through to? So, today, you have Lady 'Ihatrhcr of Kesteven and Lord Wilson ofRievaulx or whatever, back then you had more or less the same, but you didn't have to wait to get into the Upper Chamber to do it.
Everybody was at it. Personally, I think I 'd go for Fry of Soho. Maybe even… Fry of the Route of the 77 Bus -give me a bit of leeway. De Machaut, Consort Audite Nova - A Little Something For Xmas (File and Dufay. First up is the romantically titled Gaul, poet and composer: Guillaume de Machaut. Again, sorry to digress once more, but what a beautiful name. Just say it to yourself -Guillaume de Machaut. Gorgeous name. De Machaut was born in and soon realized he had a talent not only for poetry but also for music.
By the yearwith still a good fourteen years left to live, he would have been forgiven for sitting back, resting on his ars nova, and enjoying himself a little. I mean, to be fair, simply being sixty-four in those days was a bit of an achievement, considering the new black was… well, the Black Death.
De Machaut was one of the last great composers living in the age of the trouveres or troubadours, the particularly French version of what we in England called 'minstrels' or the Germans called ''minnesingers'', literally 'love singers'. A minstrel was effectively a paid, freelance musician, descended from the 'mimes' of ancient Greece and Rome, who were cast out during the barbarian invasions.
They were originally actors who took up instruments to pay their way, at a time when this was considered very much a dubious thing to do no change there, then. If this were the Bible, then the line would probably go something like this:.
Mimes begat joculatores; joculatores begat jongleurs: jongleurs begat troubadours: troubadours begat trouveres: trouveres begat menestriers; and menestriers begat minstrels. If, in this world of troubadours, trouveres and menestriers, you are having trouble spotting a minstrel, then here's a useful rule: troubadours sing and rhyme, menestriers play for dances, and minstrels melt in your mouth but not in your hand.
And de Machaut, in the trouveres tradition, was as famous in his lifetime for his words as for his music. A more or less exact contemporary of Boccaccio, the man of the Decameron, he was born in the Ardennes but, having become both learned and a priest - and I'm sure it's possible - he enjoyed lengthy stays in the courts of John of.
Luxembourg and the Duchess of Normandy. But it was around the time of Navarre that he put all his efforts into achieving the as yet unachieved, pulling off the as yet unpulled, and doing the as yet… undone. The four-part Mass. No one had, as yet, come up with a Mass that moved according to the 'laws' of harmony, but that sounded… well, good.
Rules can be obeyed to the letter, to make a perfectly 'correct' four-part Mass, but as to making it sound great - that was a whole different ballgame. Could any composer manage to JLJL get four separate 'voices' i. Imagine it this way, if you would. It's a still, muggy evening in Reims and de Machaut's 'Roger Bannister' moment is not far off.
He and his team had been competing against the Italians to be the first to produce the musical holy grail of the time - the four-parter - but the journey had been cruel. What looked like early successes were hastily rehearsed, only to reveal several chunks of the Mass that were not in four at all - some were periods of three parts, some two.
There was even an early prototype which had all the manuscript appearance of a four-part Mass, but, when sung, sounded almost totally monotonous and in unison. The setbacks had taken their toll, not just in terms of morale - two of the team had left with larynx problems, another had set up on his own, and de Machaut had lost a fourth in a tragic tongue accident sustained during a particularly fast bar of hemi-demi-semiquavers.
But he was not deterred. He knew he could do it. No composer in history had yet done it, and the spoils to the victor would be great. Well, ish!
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