Legs

Stop smoking. Take care of your feet, especially if you also have diabetes. Wear shoes that fit properly. Pay attention to any cuts, scrapes, or injuries, and see your provider right away. Tissues heal slowly and are more likely to get infected when there is decreased circulation. Make sure your blood pressure is well-controlled. If you are overweight, reduce your weight. If your cholesterol is high, eat a low-cholesterol and low-fat diet. Monitor your blood sugar level if you have diabetes, and keep it under control.

Medicines may be needed to control the disorder, including: Aspirin or a medicine called clopidogrel Plavixwhich keeps your blood from forming clots in your arteries. DO NOT stop taking these medicines without first talking with your provider. Cilostazol, a drug that works to enlarge dilate the affected artery or arteries for moderate-to-severe cases that are not candidates for surgery.

Medicine to help lower your cholesterol. Pain relievers. Options are: Procedure to open narrowed or blocked blood vessels that supply blood to your legs Surgery to reroute the blood supply around a blocked artery Some people with PAD may need to have the limb removed amputated. All these muscles are covered by the thick and dense plantar aponeurosiswhich, together with two tough septa, form the spaces of the three groups.

These muscles and their fatty tissue function as cushions that transmit the weight of the body downward. As a whole, the foot is a functional entity. The abductor hallucis stretches along the medial edge of the foot, Legs the calcaneus to the base of the first phalanx of the first digit and the medial sesamoid bone. It is an abductor and a weak flexor, and also helps maintain the arch of the foot.

Lateral to the abductor hallucis is the flexor hallucis breviswhich originates from the medial cuneiform bone and from the tendon of the tibialis posterior. The flexor hallucis has Legs medial and a lateral head inserted laterally to the abductor hallucis.

It is an important plantar flexor which comes into prominent use in classical ballet i. Both heads are inserted on the lateral sesamoid bone of the first digit. The muscle acts as a tensor to the arches of the foot, but can also adduct the first digit and plantar flex its first phalanx.

The opponens digiti minimi originates from the long plantar ligament and the plantar tendinous sheath of peroneus longus and is inserted on the fifth metatarsal. When present, it acts to plantar flex the fifth digit and supports the plantar arch.

The flexor digiti minimi arises from the region of base of the fifth metatarsal and is inserted onto the base of the first phalanx of the fifth digit where it is usually merged with the abductor of the first digit.

It acts to plantar flex the last digit. The largest and longest muscles of the little toe is the abductor digiti minimi. Stretching from the lateral process of the calcaneus, with a second attachment on the base of the fifth metatarsal, to the base of the fifth digit's first phalanx, the muscle forms the lateral edge of the sole. Except for supporting the arch, it plantar flexes the little toe and also acts as an abductor.

The four lumbricales have their origin on the tendons of the flexor digitorum longus, from where they extend to the medial side of the bases of the first phalanx of digits two-five. Except for reinforcing the plantar arch, they contribute to plantar flexion and move the four digits toward the big toe.

They are, in contrast to the lumbricales of the hand, rather variable, sometimes absent and sometimes more than four are present. The quadratus plantae arises with two slips from margins of the plantar surface of the calcaneus and is inserted into the tendon s of the flexor digitorum longus, and is known as the "plantar head" of this latter muscle. The three plantar interossei arise with their single heads on the medial side of the third-fifth metatarsals and are inserted on the bases of the first phalanges of these digits.

The two heads of the four dorsal interossei arise on two adjacent metatarsals and merge in the intermediary spaces. Their distal attachment is on the bases of the proximal phalanges of the second-fourth digits. The interossei are organized with the second digit as a longitudinal axis; the plantars act as adductors and pull digits 3—5 towards the second digit; while the dorsals act as abductors.

Additionally, the interossei act as plantar flexors at the metatarsophalangeal joints. Lastly, the flexor digitorum brevis arises from underneath the calcaneus to insert its tendons on the middle phalanges of digit 2—4.

Because the tendons of the flexor digitorum longus run between these tendons, the brevis is sometimes called perforatus. The tendons of these two muscles are surrounded by a tendinous sheath. The brevis acts to plantar flex the middle phalanges. Flexibility can be simply defined as the available range of motion ROM provided by a specific joint or group of joints. Stretching prior to strenuous physical activity has been thought to increase muscular performance by extending the soft tissue past its attainable length in order to increase range of motion.

When stretching, muscles should feel somewhat uncomfortable but not physically agonizing. In the pelvis area, at the level of the last lumbar vertebrathe abdominal aortaa continuation the descending aortasplits into a pair of common iliac arteries.

These immediately split into the internal and external iliac arteriesthe latter of which descends along the medial border of the psoas major to exits the pelvis area through the vascular lacuna under the inguinal ligament. The artery enters the thigh as the femoral artery which descends the medial side of the thigh to the adductor canal.

The canal passes from the anterior to the posterior side of the limb where the artery leaves through the adductor hiatus and becomes the popliteal artery. On the back of the knee the popliteal artery runs through the popliteal fossa to the popliteal muscle where it divides into anterior and posterior tibial arteries. In the lower leg, the anterior tibial enters the extensor compartment near the upper border of the interosseus membrane to descend between the tibialis anterior and the extensor hallucis longus.

Distal to the superior and extensor retinacula of the foot it becomes the dorsal artery of the foot. The posterior tibial forms a direct continuation of the popliteal artery which enters the flexor compartment of the lower leg to descend behind the medial malleolus where it divides into the medial and lateral plantar arteriesof which the posterior branch gives rise to the fibular artery.

For practical reasons the lower limb is subdivided into somewhat arbitrary regions: [41] The regions of the hip are all located in the thigh: anteriorly, the subinguinal region is bounded by the inguinal ligament, the sartorius, and the pectineus and forms part of the femoral triangle which extends distally to the adductor longus.

Posteriorly, the gluteal region corresponds to the gluteus maximus. The anterior region of the thigh extends distally from the femoral triangle to the region of the knee and laterally to the tensor fasciae latae. The posterior region ends distally before the popliteal fossa. The anterior and posterior regions of the knee extend from the proximal regions down to the level of the tuberosity of the tibia. In the lower leg the anterior and posterior regions extend down to the malleoli.

Behind the malleoli are the lateral and medial retromalleolar regions and behind these is the region of the heel. Finally, the foot is subdivided into a dorsal region superiorly and a plantar region inferiorly. The veins are subdivided into three systems. The deep veins return approximately 85 percent of the blood and the superficial veins approximately 15 percent.

A series of perforator veins interconnect the superficial and deep systems. In the standing posture, the veins of the leg have to handle an exceptional load as they act against gravity when they return the blood to the heart. The venous valves assist in maintaining the superficial to deep direction of the blood flow.

The sensory and motor innervation to the lower limb is supplied by the lumbosacral plexuswhich is formed by the ventral rami of the lumbar and sacral spinal nerves with additional contributions from the subcostal nerve T12 and coccygeal nerve Co1. Based on distribution and topography, the lumbosacral plexus is subdivided into Legs lumbar plexus TL4 and the Sacral plexus Legs ; the latter is often further subdivided into the sciatic and pudendal plexuses : [43].

The lumbar plexus is formed lateral to the intervertebral foramina by the ventral rami of the first four lumbar spinal nerves L1-L4which all pass through psoas major. The larger branches of the plexus exit the muscle to pass sharply downward to reach the abdominal wall and the thigh under the inguinal ligament ; with the exception of the obturator nerve which pass through the lesser pelvis to reach the medial part of the thigh through the obturator foramen.

The nerves of the lumbar plexus pass in front of the hip joint and mainly support the anterior part of the thigh. The iliohypogastric TL1 and ilioinguinal nerves L1 emerge from the psoas major near the muscle's origin, from where they run laterally downward to pass anteriorly above the iliac crest between the transversus abdominis and abdominal internal obliqueand then run above the inguinal ligament.

Both nerves give off muscular branches to both these muscles. Iliohypogastric supplies sensory branches to the skin of the lateral hip region, and its terminal branch finally pierces the aponeurosis of the abdominal external oblique above the inguinal ring to supply sensory branches to the Legs there. Ilioinguinalis exits through the inguinal ring and supplies sensory branches to the skin above the pubic symphysis and the lateral portion of the scrotum.

The genitofemoral nerve L1, L2 leaves psoas major below the two former nerves, immediately divides into two branches that descends along the muscle's anterior side.

The sensory femoral branch supplies the skin below the inguinal ligament, while the mixed genital branch supplies the skin and muscles around the sex organ. The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve L2, L3 leaves psoas major laterally below the previous nerve, runs obliquely and laterally downward above the iliacusexits the pelvic area near the iliac spineand supplies the skin of the anterior thigh. The obturator nerve L2-L4 passes medially behind psoas major to exit the pelvis through the obturator canalafter which it gives off branches to obturator externus and divides into two branches passing behind and in front of adductor brevis to supply motor innervation to all the other adductor muscles.

The anterior branch also supplies sensory nerves to the skin on a small area on the distal medial aspect of the thigh. It supplies motor innervation to iliopsoaspectineussartoriusand quadriceps ; and sensory branches to the anterior thigh, medial lower leg, and posterior foot. The nerves of the sacral plexus pass behind the hip joint to innervate the posterior part of the thigh, most of the lower leg, and the foot. The Soldier of the Valley Nelson Lloyd. Derived forms of leg leglikeadjective.

Word Origin for leg C from Old Norse leggr, of obscure origin. One of the two lower limbs of the human body, especially the part between the knee and the foot. A supporting part resembling a leg in shape or function. Some women get RLS for the first time during pregnancy, especially during their last trimester.

However, symptoms usually disappear after delivery. RLS can develop at any age, even during childhood. The disorder is more common with increasing age and more common in women than in men.

RLS usually isn't related to a serious underlying medical problem. However, it sometimes accompanies other conditions, such as:. Although RLS doesn't lead to other serious conditions, symptoms can range from barely bothersome to incapacitating. Many people with RLS find it difficult to fall or stay asleep.

Severe RLS can cause marked impairment in life quality and can result in depression. Insomnia may lead to excessive daytime drowsiness, but RLS may interfere with napping. Restless legs syndrome care at Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies Legs products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. This content does not have an English version.

This content does not have an Arabic version. Save Word. Definition of leg Entry 1 of 3. Definition of leg Entry 2 of 3. Definition of leg Entry 3 of 3. Keep scrolling for more. Examples of leg in a Sentence Noun He sat on a chair with his legs crossed. He leaned against the wall with his legs spread so the police could search him.

She broke her leg in a skiing accident. His legs gave way under him and he fell over. We had chicken legs for dinner.


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